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Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
          • Synonyms

            • Pseudotumor cerebri
            • Benign intracranial hypertension
          • Definitions

            • ↑ intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause
            • Association of any medication or condition with IIH better termed "secondary intracranial hypertension"

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Nagarajan E et al: Is magnetic resonance imaging diffusion restriction of the optic disc head a new marker for idiopathic intracranial hypertension? J Neurosci Rural Pract. 11(1):170-4, 2020
                                    2. Boyter E: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. JAAPA. 32(5):30-5, 2019
                                    3. Golden E et al: Contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR imaging of the optic nerve and optic nerve head: novel neuroimaging findings of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(2):334-9, 2019
                                    4. Rehder D: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: review of clinical syndrome, imaging findings, and treatment. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2019
                                    5. Thurtell MJ: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 25(5):1289-309, 2019
                                    6. Madriz Peralta G et al: An update of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 29(6):495-502, 2018
                                    7. Stevens SM et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: contemporary review and implications for the otolaryngologist. Laryngoscope. 128(1):248-56, 2018
                                    8. Wall M: Update on idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Clin. 35(1):45-57, 2017
                                    9. Görkem SB et al: MR imaging findings in children with pseudotumor cerebri and comparison with healthy controls. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(3):373-80, 2015
                                    10. Masri A et al: Intracranial hypertension in children: etiologies, clinical features, and outcome. J Child Neurol. 30(12):1562-8, 2015
                                    11. Sivasankar R et al: Imaging and interventions in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a pictorial essay. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(4):439-44, 2015
                                    12. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for pseudotumor cerebri: a cost comparison with CSF shunting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):952-8, 2014
                                    13. Dave SB et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: an update on treatment options. Indian J Ophthalmol. 62(10):996-8, 2014
                                    14. Liguori C et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 82(19):1752-3, 2014
                                    15. Friedman DI et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 81(13):1159-65, 2013
                                    16. Passi N et al: MR imaging of papilledema and visual pathways: effects of increased intracranial pressure and pathophysiologic mechanisms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):919-24, 2013
                                    17. Aiken AH et al: Incidence of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a mimic of the Chiari I malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(10):1901-6, 2012
                                    18. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a review of 52 patients and of model predictions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(8):1408-14, 2011
                                    19. Degnan AJ et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: brief review of clinical syndrome and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):1986-93, 2011
                                    20. Furtado SV et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: as a cause for early deterioration after Chiari I malformation surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(8):1007-12, 2009
                                    21. Hershko AY et al: Increased intracranial pressure related to systemic lupus erythematosus: a 26-year experience. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 38(2):110-5, 2008
                                    22. Randhawa S et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 19(6):445-53, 2008
                                    23. Agarwal MR et al: Optic nerve sheath fenestration for vision preservation in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurg Focus. 23(5):E7, 2007
                                    24. Binder DK et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 54(3):538-51; discussion 551-2, 2004
                                    25. Bastin ME et al: Diffuse brain oedema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(12):1693-6, 2003
                                    26. Bandyopadhyay S: Pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Neurol. 58(10):1699-701, 2001
                                    27. Suzuki H et al: MR imaging of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):196-9, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Pseudotumor cerebri
                                              • Benign intracranial hypertension
                                            • Definitions

                                              • ↑ intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause
                                              • Association of any medication or condition with IIH better termed "secondary intracranial hypertension"

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Nagarajan E et al: Is magnetic resonance imaging diffusion restriction of the optic disc head a new marker for idiopathic intracranial hypertension? J Neurosci Rural Pract. 11(1):170-4, 2020
                                                                      2. Boyter E: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. JAAPA. 32(5):30-5, 2019
                                                                      3. Golden E et al: Contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR imaging of the optic nerve and optic nerve head: novel neuroimaging findings of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(2):334-9, 2019
                                                                      4. Rehder D: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: review of clinical syndrome, imaging findings, and treatment. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2019
                                                                      5. Thurtell MJ: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 25(5):1289-309, 2019
                                                                      6. Madriz Peralta G et al: An update of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 29(6):495-502, 2018
                                                                      7. Stevens SM et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: contemporary review and implications for the otolaryngologist. Laryngoscope. 128(1):248-56, 2018
                                                                      8. Wall M: Update on idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Clin. 35(1):45-57, 2017
                                                                      9. Görkem SB et al: MR imaging findings in children with pseudotumor cerebri and comparison with healthy controls. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(3):373-80, 2015
                                                                      10. Masri A et al: Intracranial hypertension in children: etiologies, clinical features, and outcome. J Child Neurol. 30(12):1562-8, 2015
                                                                      11. Sivasankar R et al: Imaging and interventions in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a pictorial essay. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(4):439-44, 2015
                                                                      12. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for pseudotumor cerebri: a cost comparison with CSF shunting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):952-8, 2014
                                                                      13. Dave SB et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: an update on treatment options. Indian J Ophthalmol. 62(10):996-8, 2014
                                                                      14. Liguori C et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 82(19):1752-3, 2014
                                                                      15. Friedman DI et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 81(13):1159-65, 2013
                                                                      16. Passi N et al: MR imaging of papilledema and visual pathways: effects of increased intracranial pressure and pathophysiologic mechanisms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):919-24, 2013
                                                                      17. Aiken AH et al: Incidence of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a mimic of the Chiari I malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(10):1901-6, 2012
                                                                      18. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a review of 52 patients and of model predictions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(8):1408-14, 2011
                                                                      19. Degnan AJ et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: brief review of clinical syndrome and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):1986-93, 2011
                                                                      20. Furtado SV et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: as a cause for early deterioration after Chiari I malformation surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(8):1007-12, 2009
                                                                      21. Hershko AY et al: Increased intracranial pressure related to systemic lupus erythematosus: a 26-year experience. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 38(2):110-5, 2008
                                                                      22. Randhawa S et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 19(6):445-53, 2008
                                                                      23. Agarwal MR et al: Optic nerve sheath fenestration for vision preservation in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurg Focus. 23(5):E7, 2007
                                                                      24. Binder DK et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 54(3):538-51; discussion 551-2, 2004
                                                                      25. Bastin ME et al: Diffuse brain oedema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(12):1693-6, 2003
                                                                      26. Bandyopadhyay S: Pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Neurol. 58(10):1699-701, 2001
                                                                      27. Suzuki H et al: MR imaging of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):196-9, 2001