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Idiopathic Scoliosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Scoliosis of undetermined etiology without underlying bony or neuromuscular abnormalities
                • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
                • Secondary curvature: 1 more compensatory curvature above or below primary curvature
                • Flexible curvature: Curvature that resolves when patient bends to contralateral side
                • Structural curvature: Curvature that does not change when patient bends to contralateral side

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Ghandhari H et al: Long-term outcome of posterior spinal fusion for the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 13:14, 2018
                                              2. Tully PA et al: Should all paediatric patients with presumed idiopathic scoliosis undergo MRI screening for neuro-axial disease? Childs Nerv Syst. 34(11):2173-78, 2018
                                              3. Yamato Y et al: Will a low-dose biplanar radiograph become "gold standard" for three-dimensional assessment of spinal deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? J Spine Surg. 4(2):465-66, 2018
                                              4. Assi KC et al: Statistical model based 3D shape prediction of postoperative trunks for non-invasive scoliosis surgery planning. Comput Biol Med. 48C:85-93, 2014
                                              5. Longworth B et al: Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 95(9):1725-30, 2014
                                              6. Negrini S et al: Actual evidence in the medical approach to adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 50(1):87-92, 2014
                                              7. Rushton PR et al: What is the effect of surgery on the quality of life of the adolescent with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review and statistical analysis of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(9):786-94, 2013
                                              8. Pahys JM et al: Intraspinal anomalies in infantile idiopathic scoliosis: prevalence and role of magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(12):E434-8, 2009
                                              9. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                              10. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                              11. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                              12. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                              13. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                              14. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                              15. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                              16. Cordover AM et al: Natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. J Spinal Disord. 10(3):193-6, 1997
                                              17. Lee CS et al: The crankshaft phenomenon after posterior Harrington fusion in skeletally immature patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar idiopathic scoliosis followed to maturity. Spine. 22(1):58-67, 1997
                                              18. Little DG et al: The Risser sign: a critical analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 14(5):569-75, 1994
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Scoliosis of undetermined etiology without underlying bony or neuromuscular abnormalities
                                                            • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
                                                            • Secondary curvature: 1 more compensatory curvature above or below primary curvature
                                                            • Flexible curvature: Curvature that resolves when patient bends to contralateral side
                                                            • Structural curvature: Curvature that does not change when patient bends to contralateral side

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Ghandhari H et al: Long-term outcome of posterior spinal fusion for the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 13:14, 2018
                                                                                          2. Tully PA et al: Should all paediatric patients with presumed idiopathic scoliosis undergo MRI screening for neuro-axial disease? Childs Nerv Syst. 34(11):2173-78, 2018
                                                                                          3. Yamato Y et al: Will a low-dose biplanar radiograph become "gold standard" for three-dimensional assessment of spinal deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? J Spine Surg. 4(2):465-66, 2018
                                                                                          4. Assi KC et al: Statistical model based 3D shape prediction of postoperative trunks for non-invasive scoliosis surgery planning. Comput Biol Med. 48C:85-93, 2014
                                                                                          5. Longworth B et al: Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 95(9):1725-30, 2014
                                                                                          6. Negrini S et al: Actual evidence in the medical approach to adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 50(1):87-92, 2014
                                                                                          7. Rushton PR et al: What is the effect of surgery on the quality of life of the adolescent with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review and statistical analysis of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(9):786-94, 2013
                                                                                          8. Pahys JM et al: Intraspinal anomalies in infantile idiopathic scoliosis: prevalence and role of magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(12):E434-8, 2009
                                                                                          9. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                                                                          10. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                                                                          11. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                                                                          12. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                                                                          13. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                                                                          14. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                                                                          15. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                                                                          16. Cordover AM et al: Natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. J Spinal Disord. 10(3):193-6, 1997
                                                                                          17. Lee CS et al: The crankshaft phenomenon after posterior Harrington fusion in skeletally immature patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar idiopathic scoliosis followed to maturity. Spine. 22(1):58-67, 1997
                                                                                          18. Little DG et al: The Risser sign: a critical analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 14(5):569-75, 1994