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Iliac vs. IVC Venous Occlusion
Melanie Caserta, MD; Corinne Deurdulian, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Occlusion or obstruction of inferior vena cava (IVC) from thrombus, tumor, or extrinsic compression
                • Occlusion or obstruction of iliac veins most commonly from extension of lower extremity deep vein thrombus, but may be due to tumor or extrinsic compression

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Bertino RE et al: The retroperitoneum. In Rumack CM et al: Diagnostic Ultrasound. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier. 432-69, 2018
                                  2. Allan PL: The aorta and inferior vena cava. In Allan PL et al: Clinical Doppler Ultrasound. 3rd ed. Elsevier. 122-34, 2014
                                  3. Kapur S et al: Where there is blood, there is a way: unusual collateral vessels in superior and inferior vena cava obstruction. Radiographics. 30(1):67-78, 2010
                                  4. Koc Z et al: Interruption or congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava: prevalence, imaging, and clinical findings. Eur J Radiol. 62(2):257-66, 2007
                                  5. Raju S et al: Obstructive lesions of the inferior vena cava: clinical features and endovenous treatment. J Vasc Surg. 44(4):820-7, 2006
                                  6. Yamada N et al: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for proximal deep vein thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 31(2):204-11, 2006
                                  7. Kazmers A et al: Duplex examination of the inferior vena cava. Am Surg. 66(10):986-9, 2000
                                  8. Razavi MK et al: Chronically occluded inferior venae cavae: endovascular treatment. Radiology. 214(1):133-8, 2000
                                  9. Kalva SP: Inferior vena cava occlusion. STATdx.
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Occlusion or obstruction of inferior vena cava (IVC) from thrombus, tumor, or extrinsic compression
                                                • Occlusion or obstruction of iliac veins most commonly from extension of lower extremity deep vein thrombus, but may be due to tumor or extrinsic compression

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Bertino RE et al: The retroperitoneum. In Rumack CM et al: Diagnostic Ultrasound. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier. 432-69, 2018
                                                                  2. Allan PL: The aorta and inferior vena cava. In Allan PL et al: Clinical Doppler Ultrasound. 3rd ed. Elsevier. 122-34, 2014
                                                                  3. Kapur S et al: Where there is blood, there is a way: unusual collateral vessels in superior and inferior vena cava obstruction. Radiographics. 30(1):67-78, 2010
                                                                  4. Koc Z et al: Interruption or congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava: prevalence, imaging, and clinical findings. Eur J Radiol. 62(2):257-66, 2007
                                                                  5. Raju S et al: Obstructive lesions of the inferior vena cava: clinical features and endovenous treatment. J Vasc Surg. 44(4):820-7, 2006
                                                                  6. Yamada N et al: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for proximal deep vein thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 31(2):204-11, 2006
                                                                  7. Kazmers A et al: Duplex examination of the inferior vena cava. Am Surg. 66(10):986-9, 2000
                                                                  8. Razavi MK et al: Chronically occluded inferior venae cavae: endovascular treatment. Radiology. 214(1):133-8, 2000
                                                                  9. Kalva SP: Inferior vena cava occlusion. STATdx.