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Imaging of Fecal Incontinence
Rania Farouk El Sayed, MD, PhD
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Terminology

  • Definitions

    • Although the term anal incontinence is more appropriate to use as it describes involuntary loss of flatus, liquid, or solid stool; fecal incontinence is the synonymous term more commonly used in clinical practice
      • Prevalence of some degree of fecal incontinence in general population is ~ 2%, rising to 7% in elderly

Etiology of Fecal Incontinence

  • Obstetrical Trauma

    • Surgical Procedures Damaging Anal Sphincter

      • Neurological Damage

        • Idiopathic

          • Traumatic Rupture

            • Congenital Anorectal Anomalies

              • Other Abnormalities of Gastrointestinal Tract

                Imaging Findings in Fecal Incontinence

                • Defecographic Findings

                  • Anal Sphincter Defects and Scar Tissue

                    • Atrophy of Anal Sphincter

                      • Important Pitfalls

                        Choice of Imaging Technique

                        • Phased-Array vs. Endoanal MR

                          • Endoanal MR vs. Endoanal US

                            Selected References

                            1. Bitti GT et al: Pelvic floor failure: MR imaging evaluation of anatomic and functional abnormalities. Radiographics. 34(2):429-48, 2014
                            2. García Del Salto L et al: MR imaging-based assessment of the female pelvic floor. Radiographics. 34(5):1417-39, 2014
                            3. Malouf AJ et al: Prospective assessment of accuracy of endoanal MR imaging and endosonography in patients with fecal incontinence. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 175(3):741-5, 2000
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            Terminology

                            • Definitions

                              • Although the term anal incontinence is more appropriate to use as it describes involuntary loss of flatus, liquid, or solid stool; fecal incontinence is the synonymous term more commonly used in clinical practice
                                • Prevalence of some degree of fecal incontinence in general population is ~ 2%, rising to 7% in elderly

                            Etiology of Fecal Incontinence

                            • Obstetrical Trauma

                              • Surgical Procedures Damaging Anal Sphincter

                                • Neurological Damage

                                  • Idiopathic

                                    • Traumatic Rupture

                                      • Congenital Anorectal Anomalies

                                        • Other Abnormalities of Gastrointestinal Tract

                                          Imaging Findings in Fecal Incontinence

                                          • Defecographic Findings

                                            • Anal Sphincter Defects and Scar Tissue

                                              • Atrophy of Anal Sphincter

                                                • Important Pitfalls

                                                  Choice of Imaging Technique

                                                  • Phased-Array vs. Endoanal MR

                                                    • Endoanal MR vs. Endoanal US

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Bitti GT et al: Pelvic floor failure: MR imaging evaluation of anatomic and functional abnormalities. Radiographics. 34(2):429-48, 2014
                                                      2. García Del Salto L et al: MR imaging-based assessment of the female pelvic floor. Radiographics. 34(5):1417-39, 2014
                                                      3. Malouf AJ et al: Prospective assessment of accuracy of endoanal MR imaging and endosonography in patients with fecal incontinence. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 175(3):741-5, 2000