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Incomplete Fusion, Posterior Element
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • "Spina bifida occulta" is outdated term
              • Definitions

                • Spinous process/lamina unfused in midline without underlying neural or dural abnormality

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Babbi L et al: Spina bifida occulta in high grade spondylolisthesis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 18(1 Suppl):8-14, 2014
                                            2. Urrutia J et al: Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method. Eur Spine J. ePub, 2014
                                            3. Shin SH et al: Spina bifida occulta: not to be overlooked in children with nocturnal enuresis. Int J Urol. 20(8):831-5, 2013
                                            4. Healy KA et al: Occult spinal dysraphism and urolithiasis: are patients at higher risk of stone disease? J Endourol. 21(11):1293-6, 2007
                                            5. Karacan I et al: Facet angles in lumbar disc herniation: their relation to anthropometric features. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 29(10):1132-6, 2004
                                            6. Frymoyer et al: The Adult Spine. Vol 2. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven. 1923-26, 1997
                                            7. Avrahami E et al: Spina bifida occulta of S1 is not an innocent finding. Spine. 19(1):12-5, 1994
                                            8. Murtagh FR et al: The role and incidence of facet tropism in lumbar spine degenerative disc disease. J Spinal Disord. 4(1):86-9, 1991
                                            9. Boone D et al: Spina bifida occulta: lesion or anomaly? Clin Radiol. 36(2):159-61, 1985
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • "Spina bifida occulta" is outdated term
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Spinous process/lamina unfused in midline without underlying neural or dural abnormality

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Babbi L et al: Spina bifida occulta in high grade spondylolisthesis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 18(1 Suppl):8-14, 2014
                                                                                      2. Urrutia J et al: Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method. Eur Spine J. ePub, 2014
                                                                                      3. Shin SH et al: Spina bifida occulta: not to be overlooked in children with nocturnal enuresis. Int J Urol. 20(8):831-5, 2013
                                                                                      4. Healy KA et al: Occult spinal dysraphism and urolithiasis: are patients at higher risk of stone disease? J Endourol. 21(11):1293-6, 2007
                                                                                      5. Karacan I et al: Facet angles in lumbar disc herniation: their relation to anthropometric features. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 29(10):1132-6, 2004
                                                                                      6. Frymoyer et al: The Adult Spine. Vol 2. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven. 1923-26, 1997
                                                                                      7. Avrahami E et al: Spina bifida occulta of S1 is not an innocent finding. Spine. 19(1):12-5, 1994
                                                                                      8. Murtagh FR et al: The role and incidence of facet tropism in lumbar spine degenerative disc disease. J Spinal Disord. 4(1):86-9, 1991
                                                                                      9. Boone D et al: Spina bifida occulta: lesion or anomaly? Clin Radiol. 36(2):159-61, 1985