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Inferior Frontal Gyrus (Areas 44, 45, 47)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Expressive Language (Broca Area)

        • Response Inhibition

          • Attention

            • Other Hypothesized Roles

              • Cytoarchitectonic Similarity

                Structural Connections

                • Reciprocal Connections With Language Regions (Left > Right)

                  • Homotopic Left/Right Connectivity

                    • Local Connections

                      Functional Connections

                      • Coactive Regions

                        • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                          Areas 44-, 45-, 47-Associated Disorders

                          • Broca Aphasia

                            Selected References

                            1. Karl Zilles et al: Cytoarchitectonic and receptorarchitectonic organization in Broca's region and surrounding cortex. In Petkov C et al: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 2018; vol. 21: 93-105. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235215461730133X. Published June 2018. Accessed October 2019
                            2. Jakobsen E et al: Automated individual-level parcellation of Broca's region based on functional connectivity. Neuroimage. 170:41-53, 2018
                            3. Catani M et al: A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia. Brain. 136(Pt 8):2619-28, 2013
                            4. Amunts K et al: Architecture and organizational principles of Broca's region. Trends Cogn Sci. 16(8):418-26, 2012
                            5. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                            6. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                            7. Tyler LK et al: Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage. Brain. 134(Pt 2):415-31, 2011
                            8. Ford A et al: Structural connectivity of Broca's area and medial frontal cortex. Neuroimage. 52(4):1230-7, 2010
                            9. Friederici AD: Pathways to language: fiber tracts in the human brain. Trends Cogn Sci. 13(4):175-81, 2009
                            10. Kilner JM et al: Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus. J Neurosci. 29(32):10153-9, 2009
                            11. Shamay-Tsoory SG et al: Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions. Brain. 132(Pt 3):617-27, 2009
                            12. Costafreda SG et al: A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: role of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Hum Brain Mapp. 27(10):799-810, 2006
                            13. Amunts K et al: Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45. Neuroimage. 22(1):42-56, 2004
                            14. Kier EL et al: MR imaging of the temporal stem: anatomic dissection tractography of the uncinate fasciculus, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, and Meyer's loop of the optic radiation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(5):677-91, 2004
                            15. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                            16. McDermott KB et al: A procedure for identifying regions preferentially activated by attention to semantic and phonological relations using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychologia. 41(3):293-303, 2003
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            Location and Boundaries

                            • Location

                              • Boundaries

                                Function

                                • Expressive Language (Broca Area)

                                  • Response Inhibition

                                    • Attention

                                      • Other Hypothesized Roles

                                        • Cytoarchitectonic Similarity

                                          Structural Connections

                                          • Reciprocal Connections With Language Regions (Left > Right)

                                            • Homotopic Left/Right Connectivity

                                              • Local Connections

                                                Functional Connections

                                                • Coactive Regions

                                                  • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                                    Areas 44-, 45-, 47-Associated Disorders

                                                    • Broca Aphasia

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Karl Zilles et al: Cytoarchitectonic and receptorarchitectonic organization in Broca's region and surrounding cortex. In Petkov C et al: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 2018; vol. 21: 93-105. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235215461730133X. Published June 2018. Accessed October 2019
                                                      2. Jakobsen E et al: Automated individual-level parcellation of Broca's region based on functional connectivity. Neuroimage. 170:41-53, 2018
                                                      3. Catani M et al: A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia. Brain. 136(Pt 8):2619-28, 2013
                                                      4. Amunts K et al: Architecture and organizational principles of Broca's region. Trends Cogn Sci. 16(8):418-26, 2012
                                                      5. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                                      6. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                                      7. Tyler LK et al: Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage. Brain. 134(Pt 2):415-31, 2011
                                                      8. Ford A et al: Structural connectivity of Broca's area and medial frontal cortex. Neuroimage. 52(4):1230-7, 2010
                                                      9. Friederici AD: Pathways to language: fiber tracts in the human brain. Trends Cogn Sci. 13(4):175-81, 2009
                                                      10. Kilner JM et al: Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus. J Neurosci. 29(32):10153-9, 2009
                                                      11. Shamay-Tsoory SG et al: Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions. Brain. 132(Pt 3):617-27, 2009
                                                      12. Costafreda SG et al: A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: role of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Hum Brain Mapp. 27(10):799-810, 2006
                                                      13. Amunts K et al: Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45. Neuroimage. 22(1):42-56, 2004
                                                      14. Kier EL et al: MR imaging of the temporal stem: anatomic dissection tractography of the uncinate fasciculus, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, and Meyer's loop of the optic radiation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(5):677-91, 2004
                                                      15. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                                                      16. McDermott KB et al: A procedure for identifying regions preferentially activated by attention to semantic and phonological relations using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychologia. 41(3):293-303, 2003