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Inguinal Hernia
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Inguinal hernia (IH)
        • Synonyms

          • Pelvic hernia, groin hernia
        • Definitions

          • IH: External hernia with orifice in inguinal location
          • External hernia: Abnormal protrusion of intraabdominal tissue through defect in abdominal/pelvic wall with extension outside abdominal cavity

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Radiographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Kohga A et al: Does preoperative enhanced CT predict requirement of intestinal resection in the patients with incarcerated myopectineal hernias containing small bowel? Hernia. ePub, 2020
                                    2. Sim WY et al: Sonographic appearance of a large lipoma of the spermatic cord presenting clinically as an inguinoscrotal hernia. J Clin Ultrasound. 49(4):395-7, 2020
                                    3. Itani KMF et al: Approach to groin hernias. JAMA Surg. 154(6):551-2, 2019
                                    4. Cabarrus MC et al: From inguinal hernias to spermatic cord lipomas: pearls, pitfalls, and mimics of abdominal and pelvic hernias. Radiographics. 37(7):2063-82, 2017
                                    5. Tonolini M: Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after contemporary inguinal hernia repair surgery. Diagn Interv Radiol. 22(5):422-9, 2016
                                    6. Burkhardt JH et al: Diagnosis of inguinal region hernias with axial CT: the lateral crescent sign and other key findings. Radiographics. 31(2):E1-12, 2011
                                    7. Lassandro F et al: Abdominal hernias: radiological features. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 3(6):110-7, 2011
                                    8. Light D et al: The role of ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of occult inguinal hernias. Int J Surg. 9(2):169-72, 2011
                                    9. Narci A et al: O. Preoperative sonography of nonreducible inguinal masses in girls. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(7):409-12, 2008
                                    10. Cherian PT et al: Radiologic anatomy of the inguinofemoral region: insights from MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):W177-83, 2007
                                    11. Suzuki S et al: Differentiation of femoral versus inguinal hernia: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(2):W78-83, 2007
                                    12. Robinson P et al: Inguinofemoral hernia: accuracy of sonography in patients with indeterminate clinical features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):1168-78, 2006
                                    13. Alam A et al: The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of clinically occult groin hernias in adults. Eur Radiol. 15(12):2457-61, 2005
                                    14. van den Berg JC: Inguinal hernias: MRI and ultrasound. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 23(2): 156-73, 2002
                                    15. Shadbolt CL et al: Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics. 21 Spec No: S261-71, 2001
                                    16. Zhang GQ et al: Groin hernias in adults: value of color Doppler sonography in their classification. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(8): 429-34, 2001
                                    17. Toms AP et al: Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias. Br J Surg. 86(10): 1243-9, 1999
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Inguinal hernia (IH)
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Pelvic hernia, groin hernia
                                          • Definitions

                                            • IH: External hernia with orifice in inguinal location
                                            • External hernia: Abnormal protrusion of intraabdominal tissue through defect in abdominal/pelvic wall with extension outside abdominal cavity

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Kohga A et al: Does preoperative enhanced CT predict requirement of intestinal resection in the patients with incarcerated myopectineal hernias containing small bowel? Hernia. ePub, 2020
                                                                      2. Sim WY et al: Sonographic appearance of a large lipoma of the spermatic cord presenting clinically as an inguinoscrotal hernia. J Clin Ultrasound. 49(4):395-7, 2020
                                                                      3. Itani KMF et al: Approach to groin hernias. JAMA Surg. 154(6):551-2, 2019
                                                                      4. Cabarrus MC et al: From inguinal hernias to spermatic cord lipomas: pearls, pitfalls, and mimics of abdominal and pelvic hernias. Radiographics. 37(7):2063-82, 2017
                                                                      5. Tonolini M: Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after contemporary inguinal hernia repair surgery. Diagn Interv Radiol. 22(5):422-9, 2016
                                                                      6. Burkhardt JH et al: Diagnosis of inguinal region hernias with axial CT: the lateral crescent sign and other key findings. Radiographics. 31(2):E1-12, 2011
                                                                      7. Lassandro F et al: Abdominal hernias: radiological features. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 3(6):110-7, 2011
                                                                      8. Light D et al: The role of ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of occult inguinal hernias. Int J Surg. 9(2):169-72, 2011
                                                                      9. Narci A et al: O. Preoperative sonography of nonreducible inguinal masses in girls. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(7):409-12, 2008
                                                                      10. Cherian PT et al: Radiologic anatomy of the inguinofemoral region: insights from MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):W177-83, 2007
                                                                      11. Suzuki S et al: Differentiation of femoral versus inguinal hernia: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(2):W78-83, 2007
                                                                      12. Robinson P et al: Inguinofemoral hernia: accuracy of sonography in patients with indeterminate clinical features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):1168-78, 2006
                                                                      13. Alam A et al: The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of clinically occult groin hernias in adults. Eur Radiol. 15(12):2457-61, 2005
                                                                      14. van den Berg JC: Inguinal hernias: MRI and ultrasound. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 23(2): 156-73, 2002
                                                                      15. Shadbolt CL et al: Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics. 21 Spec No: S261-71, 2001
                                                                      16. Zhang GQ et al: Groin hernias in adults: value of color Doppler sonography in their classification. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(8): 429-34, 2001
                                                                      17. Toms AP et al: Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias. Br J Surg. 86(10): 1243-9, 1999