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Insula and Parainsula Areas (Areas 13, 43)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Locations and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Interoception

        • Salience

          • Emotion

            • Somatosensation

              • Music

                • Gustation

                  • Time Passage

                    Structural Connections

                    • Cortical

                      • Subcortical

                        Functional Connections

                        • Coactive Regions

                          • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                            Areas 13- and 43-Associated Disorders

                            • Fibromyalgia

                              • Addiction

                                • Anxiety Conditions

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Gogolla N: The insular cortex. Curr Biol. 27(12):R580-R586, 2017
                                  2. Uddin LQ et al: Structure and function of the human insula. J Clin Neurophysiol. 34(4):300-6, 2017
                                  3. Caseras X et al: Anatomical and functional overlap within the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during interoception and phobic symptom provocation. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(5):1220-9, 2013
                                  4. Kamping S et al: Deficient modulation of pain by a positive emotional context in fibromyalgia patients. Pain. 154(9):1846-55, 2013
                                  5. Klumpp H et al: Insula reactivity and connectivity to anterior cingulate cortex when processing threat in generalized social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychol. 89(1):273-6, 2012
                                  6. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                  7. Veit R et al: Using real-time fMRI to learn voluntary regulation of the anterior insula in the presence of threat-related stimuli. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 7(6):623-34, 2012
                                  8. Carlson JM et al: Feeling anxious: anticipatory amygdalo-insular response predicts the feeling of anxious anticipation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(1):74-81, 2011
                                  9. Cauda F et al: Functional connectivity of the insula in the resting brain. Neuroimage. 55(1):8-23, 2011
                                  10. Corradi-Dell'Acqua C et al: Felt and seen pain evoke the same local patterns of cortical activity in insular and cingulate cortex. J Neurosci. 31(49):17996-8006, 2011
                                  11. Kang Y et al: Physical temperature effects on trust behavior: the role of insula. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(4):507-15, 2011
                                  12. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                  13. Morrison I et al: Vicarious responses to social touch in posterior insular cortex are tuned to pleasant caressing speeds. J Neurosci. 31(26):9554-62, 2011
                                  14. Riem MM et al: Oxytocin modulates amygdala, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus responses to infant crying: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 70(3):291-7, 2011
                                  15. Veldhuizen MG et al: The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation. J Neurosci. 31(41):14735-44, 2011
                                  16. Kurth F et al: Cytoarchitecture and probabilistic maps of the human posterior insular cortex. Cereb Cortex. 20(6):1448-61, 2010
                                  17. Craig AD: How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci. 10(1):59-70, 2009
                                  18. von dem Hagen EA et al: Leaving a bad taste in your mouth but not in my insula. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 4(4):379-86, 2009
                                  19. Etkin A et al: Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 164(10):1476-88, 2007
                                  20. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  Locations and Boundaries

                                  • Location

                                    • Boundaries

                                      Function

                                      • Interoception

                                        • Salience

                                          • Emotion

                                            • Somatosensation

                                              • Music

                                                • Gustation

                                                  • Time Passage

                                                    Structural Connections

                                                    • Cortical

                                                      • Subcortical

                                                        Functional Connections

                                                        • Coactive Regions

                                                          • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                                            Areas 13- and 43-Associated Disorders

                                                            • Fibromyalgia

                                                              • Addiction

                                                                • Anxiety Conditions

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Gogolla N: The insular cortex. Curr Biol. 27(12):R580-R586, 2017
                                                                  2. Uddin LQ et al: Structure and function of the human insula. J Clin Neurophysiol. 34(4):300-6, 2017
                                                                  3. Caseras X et al: Anatomical and functional overlap within the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during interoception and phobic symptom provocation. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(5):1220-9, 2013
                                                                  4. Kamping S et al: Deficient modulation of pain by a positive emotional context in fibromyalgia patients. Pain. 154(9):1846-55, 2013
                                                                  5. Klumpp H et al: Insula reactivity and connectivity to anterior cingulate cortex when processing threat in generalized social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychol. 89(1):273-6, 2012
                                                                  6. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                                                  7. Veit R et al: Using real-time fMRI to learn voluntary regulation of the anterior insula in the presence of threat-related stimuli. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 7(6):623-34, 2012
                                                                  8. Carlson JM et al: Feeling anxious: anticipatory amygdalo-insular response predicts the feeling of anxious anticipation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(1):74-81, 2011
                                                                  9. Cauda F et al: Functional connectivity of the insula in the resting brain. Neuroimage. 55(1):8-23, 2011
                                                                  10. Corradi-Dell'Acqua C et al: Felt and seen pain evoke the same local patterns of cortical activity in insular and cingulate cortex. J Neurosci. 31(49):17996-8006, 2011
                                                                  11. Kang Y et al: Physical temperature effects on trust behavior: the role of insula. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(4):507-15, 2011
                                                                  12. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                                                  13. Morrison I et al: Vicarious responses to social touch in posterior insular cortex are tuned to pleasant caressing speeds. J Neurosci. 31(26):9554-62, 2011
                                                                  14. Riem MM et al: Oxytocin modulates amygdala, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus responses to infant crying: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 70(3):291-7, 2011
                                                                  15. Veldhuizen MG et al: The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation. J Neurosci. 31(41):14735-44, 2011
                                                                  16. Kurth F et al: Cytoarchitecture and probabilistic maps of the human posterior insular cortex. Cereb Cortex. 20(6):1448-61, 2010
                                                                  17. Craig AD: How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci. 10(1):59-70, 2009
                                                                  18. von dem Hagen EA et al: Leaving a bad taste in your mouth but not in my insula. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 4(4):379-86, 2009
                                                                  19. Etkin A et al: Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 164(10):1476-88, 2007
                                                                  20. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003