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Intracranial Atherosclerosis
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Intracranial atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD)
            • Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS)
          • Definitions

            • Narrowing or ectasia of intracranial arteries secondary to ASVD

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Ahn SH et al: Isolated MCA disease in patients without significant atherosclerotic risk factors: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Stroke. 46(3):697-703, 2015
                                            2. Park JH et al: Association of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis with severity of white matter hyperintensities. Eur J Neurol. 22(1):44-52, e2-3, 2015
                                            3. Battistella V et al: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Eur J Neurol. 21(7):956-62, 2014
                                            4. Gao T et al: Mechanisms of ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis: A high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Exp Ther Med. 7(5):1415-1419, 2014
                                            5. Ryu CW et al: High-resolution MRI of intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Neurointervention. 9(1):9-20, 2014
                                            6. Turan TN et al: Intracranial atherosclerosis: correlation between in-vivo 3T high resolution MRI and pathology. Atherosclerosis. 237(2):460-3, 2014
                                            7. Holmstedt CA et al: Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 12(11):1106-14, 2013
                                            8. Kassab MY et al: Extent of intra-arterial calcification on head CT is predictive of the degree of intracranial atherosclerosis on digital subtraction angiography. Cerebrovasc Dis. 28(1):45-8, 2009
                                            9. Man BL et al: Lesion patterns and stroke mechanisms in concurrent atherosclerosis of intracranial and extracranial vessels. Stroke. 40(10):3211-5, 2009
                                            10. Nguyen-Huynh MN et al: How accurate is CT angiography in evaluating intracranial atherosclerotic disease? Stroke. 39(4):1184-8, 2008
                                            11. Samuels OB et al: A standardized method for measuring intracranial arterial stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(4):643-6, 2000
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Intracranial atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD)
                                                      • Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Narrowing or ectasia of intracranial arteries secondary to ASVD

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Ahn SH et al: Isolated MCA disease in patients without significant atherosclerotic risk factors: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Stroke. 46(3):697-703, 2015
                                                                                      2. Park JH et al: Association of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis with severity of white matter hyperintensities. Eur J Neurol. 22(1):44-52, e2-3, 2015
                                                                                      3. Battistella V et al: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Eur J Neurol. 21(7):956-62, 2014
                                                                                      4. Gao T et al: Mechanisms of ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis: A high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Exp Ther Med. 7(5):1415-1419, 2014
                                                                                      5. Ryu CW et al: High-resolution MRI of intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Neurointervention. 9(1):9-20, 2014
                                                                                      6. Turan TN et al: Intracranial atherosclerosis: correlation between in-vivo 3T high resolution MRI and pathology. Atherosclerosis. 237(2):460-3, 2014
                                                                                      7. Holmstedt CA et al: Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 12(11):1106-14, 2013
                                                                                      8. Kassab MY et al: Extent of intra-arterial calcification on head CT is predictive of the degree of intracranial atherosclerosis on digital subtraction angiography. Cerebrovasc Dis. 28(1):45-8, 2009
                                                                                      9. Man BL et al: Lesion patterns and stroke mechanisms in concurrent atherosclerosis of intracranial and extracranial vessels. Stroke. 40(10):3211-5, 2009
                                                                                      10. Nguyen-Huynh MN et al: How accurate is CT angiography in evaluating intracranial atherosclerotic disease? Stroke. 39(4):1184-8, 2008
                                                                                      11. Samuels OB et al: A standardized method for measuring intracranial arterial stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(4):643-6, 2000