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Intracranial Hemorrhage
Emily Edwards, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
            • Definitions

              • Bleeding within fetal cranium

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Adiego B et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 32(1):21-30, 2019
                                    2. Abdelkader MA et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: sonographic criteria and merits of prenatal diagnosis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 30(18):2250-6, 2017
                                    3. Putbrese B et al: Findings and differential diagnosis of fetal intracranial haemorrhage and fetal ischaemic brain injury: what is the role of fetal MRI? Br J Radiol. 90(1070):20160253, 2017
                                    4. Sanapo L et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: role of fetal MRI. Prenat Diagn. 37(8):827-36, 2017
                                    5. Delbos F et al: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: predictive factors of intracranial hemorrhage. Transfusion. 56(1):59-66; quiz 58, 2016
                                    6. Van Der Lugt NM et al: Neonatal outcome in alloimmune thrombocytopenia after maternal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Blood Transfus. 13(1):66-71, 2015
                                    7. Kutuk MS et al: Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):411-8, 2014
                                    8. Tiller H et al: Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry. BMJ Open. 3(3), 2013
                                    9. Bussel J: Diagnosis and management of the fetus and neonate with alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 7 Suppl 1:253-7, 2009
                                    10. Elchalal U et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): does grade matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):233-43, 2005
                                    11. Ghi T et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed intracranial hemorrhage: case series and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(2):121-30, 2003
                                    12. Sherer DM et al: Antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage, predisposing factors and prenatal sonography: a review. Am J Perinatol. 15(7):431-41, 1998
                                    13. Vergani P et al: Clinical significance of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175(3 Pt 1):536-43, 1996
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Bleeding within fetal cranium

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Adiego B et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 32(1):21-30, 2019
                                                                      2. Abdelkader MA et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: sonographic criteria and merits of prenatal diagnosis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 30(18):2250-6, 2017
                                                                      3. Putbrese B et al: Findings and differential diagnosis of fetal intracranial haemorrhage and fetal ischaemic brain injury: what is the role of fetal MRI? Br J Radiol. 90(1070):20160253, 2017
                                                                      4. Sanapo L et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: role of fetal MRI. Prenat Diagn. 37(8):827-36, 2017
                                                                      5. Delbos F et al: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: predictive factors of intracranial hemorrhage. Transfusion. 56(1):59-66; quiz 58, 2016
                                                                      6. Van Der Lugt NM et al: Neonatal outcome in alloimmune thrombocytopenia after maternal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Blood Transfus. 13(1):66-71, 2015
                                                                      7. Kutuk MS et al: Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):411-8, 2014
                                                                      8. Tiller H et al: Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry. BMJ Open. 3(3), 2013
                                                                      9. Bussel J: Diagnosis and management of the fetus and neonate with alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 7 Suppl 1:253-7, 2009
                                                                      10. Elchalal U et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): does grade matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):233-43, 2005
                                                                      11. Ghi T et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed intracranial hemorrhage: case series and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(2):121-30, 2003
                                                                      12. Sherer DM et al: Antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage, predisposing factors and prenatal sonography: a review. Am J Perinatol. 15(7):431-41, 1998
                                                                      13. Vergani P et al: Clinical significance of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175(3 Pt 1):536-43, 1996