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Intracranial Hemorrhage
Karen Y. Oh, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
            • Definitions

              • Bleeding within fetal cranium

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Paridaans NP et al: Low-dose versus standard-dose intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent fetal intracranial hemorrhage in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a randomized trial. Fetal Diagn Ther. ePub, 2015
                                      2. Van Der Lugt NM et al: Neonatal outcome in alloimmune thrombocytopenia after maternal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Blood Transfus. 13(1):66-71, 2015
                                      3. Gherman RB et al: Placental abruption and fetal intraventricular hemorrhage after airbag deployment: a case report. J Reprod Med. 59(9-10):501-3, 2014
                                      4. Kutuk MS et al: Is there relation between COL4A1/A2 mutations and antenatally detected fetal intraventricular hemorrhage? Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):419-24, 2014
                                      5. Kutuk MS et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage related to maternal autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(12):2147-50, 2014
                                      6. Kutuk MS et al: Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):411-8, 2014
                                      7. Tiller H et al: Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry. BMJ Open. 3(3), 2013
                                      8. Zeina AR et al: Computed tomographic diagnosis of traumatic fetal subdural hematoma. Emerg Radiol. 20(2):169-72, 2013
                                      9. Bussel J: Diagnosis and management of the fetus and neonate with alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 7 Suppl 1:253-7, 2009
                                      10. Carletti A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral lesions acquired in utero and with a late appearance. Prenat Diagn. 29(4):389-95, 2009
                                      11. Crespin M et al: Fetal intracerebral hemorrhage in familial thrombophilia. Pediatr Neurol. 41(4):291-3, 2009
                                      12. Govaert P: Prenatal stroke. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 14(5):250-66, 2009
                                      13. Hines N et al: What is the clinical importance of echogenic material in the fetal frontal horns? J Ultrasound Med. 28(12):1629-37, 2009
                                      14. Piastra M et al: Severe subdural hemorrhage due to minimal prenatal trauma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(6):543-6, 2009
                                      15. Huang YF et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): report of four antenatally diagnosed cases and review of the literature. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 45(2):135-41, 2006
                                      16. Elchalal U et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): does grade matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):233-43, 2005
                                      17. Ellestad SC et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a trauma-related fetal epidural hematoma. Obstet Gynecol. 104(6):1298-300, 2004
                                      18. Ghi T et al: Sonographic demonstration of brain injury in fetuses with severe red blood cell alloimmunization undergoing intrauterine transfusions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(5):428-31, 2004
                                      19. Ghi T et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed intracranial hemorrhage: case series and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(2):121-30, 2003
                                      20. Raymond GV: Rare neurologic injury from amniocentesis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 67(3):205-6, 2003
                                      21. Zanders EH et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage at 25 weeks of gestation. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):324-7, 2003
                                      22. Emamian SA et al: Fetal MRI evaluation of an intracranial mass: in utero evolution of hemorrhage. Pediatr Radiol. 32(8):593-7, 2002
                                      23. Meagher SE et al: Mid-trimester fetal subdural hemorrhage: prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(3):296-8, 2002
                                      24. Sharif U et al: Prenatal intracranial hemorrhage and neurologic complications in alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Child Neurol. 16(11):838-42, 2001
                                      25. Squier M et al: Five cases of brain injury following amniocentesis in mid-term pregnancy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 42(8):554-60, 2000
                                      26. Ranzini AC et al: Prenatal sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic cerebellar infarction. J Ultrasound Med. 17(11):725-7, 1998
                                      27. Sherer DM et al: Antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage, predisposing factors and prenatal sonography: a review. Am J Perinatol. 15(7):431-41, 1998
                                      28. Vergani P et al: Clinical significance of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175(3 Pt 1):536-43, 1996
                                      29. Catanzarite VA et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage: report of a case with a sinusoidal fetal heart rate tracing, and review of the literature. Prenat Diagn. 15(3):229-35, 1995
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Bleeding within fetal cranium

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Paridaans NP et al: Low-dose versus standard-dose intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent fetal intracranial hemorrhage in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a randomized trial. Fetal Diagn Ther. ePub, 2015
                                                                          2. Van Der Lugt NM et al: Neonatal outcome in alloimmune thrombocytopenia after maternal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Blood Transfus. 13(1):66-71, 2015
                                                                          3. Gherman RB et al: Placental abruption and fetal intraventricular hemorrhage after airbag deployment: a case report. J Reprod Med. 59(9-10):501-3, 2014
                                                                          4. Kutuk MS et al: Is there relation between COL4A1/A2 mutations and antenatally detected fetal intraventricular hemorrhage? Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):419-24, 2014
                                                                          5. Kutuk MS et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage related to maternal autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(12):2147-50, 2014
                                                                          6. Kutuk MS et al: Prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(3):411-8, 2014
                                                                          7. Tiller H et al: Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry. BMJ Open. 3(3), 2013
                                                                          8. Zeina AR et al: Computed tomographic diagnosis of traumatic fetal subdural hematoma. Emerg Radiol. 20(2):169-72, 2013
                                                                          9. Bussel J: Diagnosis and management of the fetus and neonate with alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 7 Suppl 1:253-7, 2009
                                                                          10. Carletti A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral lesions acquired in utero and with a late appearance. Prenat Diagn. 29(4):389-95, 2009
                                                                          11. Crespin M et al: Fetal intracerebral hemorrhage in familial thrombophilia. Pediatr Neurol. 41(4):291-3, 2009
                                                                          12. Govaert P: Prenatal stroke. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 14(5):250-66, 2009
                                                                          13. Hines N et al: What is the clinical importance of echogenic material in the fetal frontal horns? J Ultrasound Med. 28(12):1629-37, 2009
                                                                          14. Piastra M et al: Severe subdural hemorrhage due to minimal prenatal trauma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(6):543-6, 2009
                                                                          15. Huang YF et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): report of four antenatally diagnosed cases and review of the literature. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 45(2):135-41, 2006
                                                                          16. Elchalal U et al: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): does grade matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):233-43, 2005
                                                                          17. Ellestad SC et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a trauma-related fetal epidural hematoma. Obstet Gynecol. 104(6):1298-300, 2004
                                                                          18. Ghi T et al: Sonographic demonstration of brain injury in fetuses with severe red blood cell alloimmunization undergoing intrauterine transfusions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(5):428-31, 2004
                                                                          19. Ghi T et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed intracranial hemorrhage: case series and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(2):121-30, 2003
                                                                          20. Raymond GV: Rare neurologic injury from amniocentesis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 67(3):205-6, 2003
                                                                          21. Zanders EH et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage at 25 weeks of gestation. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):324-7, 2003
                                                                          22. Emamian SA et al: Fetal MRI evaluation of an intracranial mass: in utero evolution of hemorrhage. Pediatr Radiol. 32(8):593-7, 2002
                                                                          23. Meagher SE et al: Mid-trimester fetal subdural hemorrhage: prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(3):296-8, 2002
                                                                          24. Sharif U et al: Prenatal intracranial hemorrhage and neurologic complications in alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Child Neurol. 16(11):838-42, 2001
                                                                          25. Squier M et al: Five cases of brain injury following amniocentesis in mid-term pregnancy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 42(8):554-60, 2000
                                                                          26. Ranzini AC et al: Prenatal sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic cerebellar infarction. J Ultrasound Med. 17(11):725-7, 1998
                                                                          27. Sherer DM et al: Antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage, predisposing factors and prenatal sonography: a review. Am J Perinatol. 15(7):431-41, 1998
                                                                          28. Vergani P et al: Clinical significance of fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175(3 Pt 1):536-43, 1996
                                                                          29. Catanzarite VA et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage: report of a case with a sinusoidal fetal heart rate tracing, and review of the literature. Prenat Diagn. 15(3):229-35, 1995