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Intracranial Herniation Syndromes
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Subfalcine herniation (SFH)
            • Descending transtentorial herniation (DTH)
          • Definitions

            • Herniation of brain from 1 compartment (normally separated by calvarial &/or dural boundaries) to another

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Wu H et al: The Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Central Brain Herniations Caused by Traumatic Bifrontal Contusions. J Craniofac Surg. ePub, 2014
                                  2. Arbour RB: Early metabolic/cellular-level resuscitation following terminal brain stem herniation: implications for organ transplantation. AACN Adv Crit Care. 24(1):59-78, 2013
                                  3. Bor-Seng-Shu E et al: Posttraumatic refractory intracranial hypertension and brain herniation syndrome: cerebral hemodynamic assessment before decompressive craniectomy. Biomed Res Int. 2013:750809, 2013
                                  4. Young GB: Impaired consciousness and herniation syndromes. Neurol Clin. 29(4):765-72, 2011
                                  5. Kalita J et al: Brain herniations in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand. 119(4):254-60, 2009
                                  6. Hussain SI et al: Brainstem ischemia in acute herniation syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 268(1-2):190-2, 2008
                                  7. Marupaka SK et al: Atypical Duret haemorrhages seen on computed tomography. Emerg Med Australas. 20(2):180-2, 2008
                                  8. Timms C et al: Brainstem distortion from postoperative cerebellar herniation through a dural and bony defect. J Clin Neurosci. 15(9):1050-1, 2008
                                  9. Yoo WK et al: Kernohan's notch phenomenon demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(11):1295-7, 2008
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Subfalcine herniation (SFH)
                                            • Descending transtentorial herniation (DTH)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Herniation of brain from 1 compartment (normally separated by calvarial &/or dural boundaries) to another

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Wu H et al: The Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Central Brain Herniations Caused by Traumatic Bifrontal Contusions. J Craniofac Surg. ePub, 2014
                                                                  2. Arbour RB: Early metabolic/cellular-level resuscitation following terminal brain stem herniation: implications for organ transplantation. AACN Adv Crit Care. 24(1):59-78, 2013
                                                                  3. Bor-Seng-Shu E et al: Posttraumatic refractory intracranial hypertension and brain herniation syndrome: cerebral hemodynamic assessment before decompressive craniectomy. Biomed Res Int. 2013:750809, 2013
                                                                  4. Young GB: Impaired consciousness and herniation syndromes. Neurol Clin. 29(4):765-72, 2011
                                                                  5. Kalita J et al: Brain herniations in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand. 119(4):254-60, 2009
                                                                  6. Hussain SI et al: Brainstem ischemia in acute herniation syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 268(1-2):190-2, 2008
                                                                  7. Marupaka SK et al: Atypical Duret haemorrhages seen on computed tomography. Emerg Med Australas. 20(2):180-2, 2008
                                                                  8. Timms C et al: Brainstem distortion from postoperative cerebellar herniation through a dural and bony defect. J Clin Neurosci. 15(9):1050-1, 2008
                                                                  9. Yoo WK et al: Kernohan's notch phenomenon demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(11):1295-7, 2008