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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Stephanie A. Bernard, MD; B. J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)
        • Synonyms

          • Formerly: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA)
          • Systemic JIA: formerly Still disease
        • Definitions

          • Group of chronic inflammatory arthritides of unknown origin beginning before 16 years of age

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Imaging Recommendations

            • Radiographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Zaripova LN et al: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: from aetiopathogenesis to therapeutic approaches. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 19(1):135, 2021
                                    2. Hemke R et al: Imaging assessment of children presenting with suspected or known juvenile idiopathic arthritis: ESSR-ESPR points to consider. Eur Radiol. 30(10):5237-49, 2020
                                    3. Martini A et al: Toward new classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: first steps, pediatric rheumatology international trials organization international consensus. J Rheumatol. 46(2):190-7, 2019
                                    4. Nguyen JC et al: US evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and osteoarticular infection. Radiographics. 37(4):1181-201, 2017
                                    5. Hu X et al: Effect of etanercept on refractory systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. World J Pediatr. 12(1):96-102, 2016
                                    6. Hansmann S et al: Dynamic knee joint function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 13:8, 2015
                                    7. Hinze C et al: Management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: hitting the target. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 11(5):290-300, 2015
                                    8. Rigante D et al: The etiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 49(2):253-61, 2015
                                    9. Scardapane A et al: TNF-α gene polymorphisms and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Influence on disease outcome and therapeutic response. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 45(1):35-41, 2015
                                    10. Swarup I et al: Implant survival and patient-reported outcomes after total hip arthroplasty in young patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Arthroplasty. 30(3):398-402, 2015
                                    11. Tuttle KS et al: Enthesitis as a component of dactylitis in psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: histology of an established clinical entity. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 13:7, 2015
                                    12. Oberle EJ et al: Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis - epidemiology and management approaches. Clin Epidemiol. 6:379-93, 2014
                                    13. Sheybani EF et al: Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multimodality approach. Radiographics. 33(5):1253-73, 2013
                                    14. Bazso A et al: Development and testing of reduced joint counts in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 36(1):183-90, 2009
                                    15. Gardner-Medwin JM et al: MRI in juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1154:52-83, 2009
                                    16. Hinks A et al: Association of the IL2RA/CD25 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 60(1):251-7, 2009
                                    17. Miller E et al: Evidence-based outcomes of studies addressing diagnostic accuracy of MRI of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1209-18, 2009
                                    18. Mima T et al: Interleukin 11 and paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha expression correlates with the number of joints with active arthritis in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 68(2):286-7, 2009
                                    19. Zannin ME et al: Sudden visual loss in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(3):282-3, 417, 2009
                                    20. Petty RE et al: International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol. 31(2):390-2, 2004
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Formerly: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA)
                                            • Systemic JIA: formerly Still disease
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Group of chronic inflammatory arthritides of unknown origin beginning before 16 years of age

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Zaripova LN et al: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: from aetiopathogenesis to therapeutic approaches. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 19(1):135, 2021
                                                                      2. Hemke R et al: Imaging assessment of children presenting with suspected or known juvenile idiopathic arthritis: ESSR-ESPR points to consider. Eur Radiol. 30(10):5237-49, 2020
                                                                      3. Martini A et al: Toward new classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: first steps, pediatric rheumatology international trials organization international consensus. J Rheumatol. 46(2):190-7, 2019
                                                                      4. Nguyen JC et al: US evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and osteoarticular infection. Radiographics. 37(4):1181-201, 2017
                                                                      5. Hu X et al: Effect of etanercept on refractory systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. World J Pediatr. 12(1):96-102, 2016
                                                                      6. Hansmann S et al: Dynamic knee joint function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 13:8, 2015
                                                                      7. Hinze C et al: Management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: hitting the target. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 11(5):290-300, 2015
                                                                      8. Rigante D et al: The etiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 49(2):253-61, 2015
                                                                      9. Scardapane A et al: TNF-α gene polymorphisms and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Influence on disease outcome and therapeutic response. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 45(1):35-41, 2015
                                                                      10. Swarup I et al: Implant survival and patient-reported outcomes after total hip arthroplasty in young patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Arthroplasty. 30(3):398-402, 2015
                                                                      11. Tuttle KS et al: Enthesitis as a component of dactylitis in psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: histology of an established clinical entity. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 13:7, 2015
                                                                      12. Oberle EJ et al: Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis - epidemiology and management approaches. Clin Epidemiol. 6:379-93, 2014
                                                                      13. Sheybani EF et al: Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multimodality approach. Radiographics. 33(5):1253-73, 2013
                                                                      14. Bazso A et al: Development and testing of reduced joint counts in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 36(1):183-90, 2009
                                                                      15. Gardner-Medwin JM et al: MRI in juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1154:52-83, 2009
                                                                      16. Hinks A et al: Association of the IL2RA/CD25 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 60(1):251-7, 2009
                                                                      17. Miller E et al: Evidence-based outcomes of studies addressing diagnostic accuracy of MRI of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1209-18, 2009
                                                                      18. Mima T et al: Interleukin 11 and paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha expression correlates with the number of joints with active arthritis in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 68(2):286-7, 2009
                                                                      19. Zannin ME et al: Sudden visual loss in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(3):282-3, 417, 2009
                                                                      20. Petty RE et al: International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol. 31(2):390-2, 2004