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Kaposi Sarcoma
Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, MD; Carlos S. Restrepo, MD; Brett W. Carter, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Kaposi sarcoma (KS)
              • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS): Epidemic KS
              • Iatrogenic Kaposi sarcoma (IKS)
            • Definitions

              • Low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of blood and lymphatic vessels, primarily affecting skin
              • Can cause disseminated disease in variety of organs: Lymphatic system, lungs, airways, abdominal viscera, etc.
              • AIDS-KS: KS related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS
              • IKS: KS related to immunosuppression

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Gramolelli S et al: The role of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma. J Pathol. 235(2):368-80, 2015
                                          2. Mankia SK et al: The response of HIV-associated lymphadenopathic Kaposi sarcoma to highly active antiretroviral therapy evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 37(7):692-3, 2012
                                          3. van de Luijtgaarden A et al: Imaging of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma; F-18-FDG-PET/CT and In-111-bevacizumabscintigraphy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 54(4):444-6, 2010
                                          4. Gasparetto TD et al: Pulmonary involvement in Kaposi sarcoma: correlation between imaging and pathology. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 4:18, 2009
                                          5. Martinez S et al: Kaposi sarcoma after bilateral lung transplantation. J Thorac Imaging. 23(1):50-3, 2008
                                          6. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging manifestations of Kaposi sarcoma. Radiographics. 26(4):1169-85, 2006
                                          7. Cheung MC et al: AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncologist. 10(6):412-26, 2005
                                          8. Boiselle PM et al: Update on lung disease in AIDS. Semin Roentgenol. 37(1):54-71, 2002
                                          9. Moore EH et al: Bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS: multiorgan imaging findings. Radiology. 197(1):67-72, 1995
                                          10. Sivit CJ et al: Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung in AIDS: radiologic-pathologic analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(1):25-8, 1987
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Kaposi sarcoma (KS)
                                                      • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS): Epidemic KS
                                                      • Iatrogenic Kaposi sarcoma (IKS)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of blood and lymphatic vessels, primarily affecting skin
                                                      • Can cause disseminated disease in variety of organs: Lymphatic system, lungs, airways, abdominal viscera, etc.
                                                      • AIDS-KS: KS related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS
                                                      • IKS: KS related to immunosuppression

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Gramolelli S et al: The role of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma. J Pathol. 235(2):368-80, 2015
                                                                                  2. Mankia SK et al: The response of HIV-associated lymphadenopathic Kaposi sarcoma to highly active antiretroviral therapy evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 37(7):692-3, 2012
                                                                                  3. van de Luijtgaarden A et al: Imaging of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma; F-18-FDG-PET/CT and In-111-bevacizumabscintigraphy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 54(4):444-6, 2010
                                                                                  4. Gasparetto TD et al: Pulmonary involvement in Kaposi sarcoma: correlation between imaging and pathology. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 4:18, 2009
                                                                                  5. Martinez S et al: Kaposi sarcoma after bilateral lung transplantation. J Thorac Imaging. 23(1):50-3, 2008
                                                                                  6. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging manifestations of Kaposi sarcoma. Radiographics. 26(4):1169-85, 2006
                                                                                  7. Cheung MC et al: AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncologist. 10(6):412-26, 2005
                                                                                  8. Boiselle PM et al: Update on lung disease in AIDS. Semin Roentgenol. 37(1):54-71, 2002
                                                                                  9. Moore EH et al: Bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS: multiorgan imaging findings. Radiology. 197(1):67-72, 1995
                                                                                  10. Sivit CJ et al: Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung in AIDS: radiologic-pathologic analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(1):25-8, 1987