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Kernicterus
P. Ellen Grant, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Bilirubin (BR) or posticteric encephalopathy

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Hegde D et al: Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage. N Engl J Med. 370(10):978-9, 2014
                                      2. Bhutani VK et al: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and Rhesus disease of the newborn: incidence and impairment estimates for 2010 at regional and global levels. Pediatr Res. 74 Suppl 1:86-100, 2013
                                      3. Christensen RD et al: Neonatal death suspected to be from sepsis was found to be kernicterus with G6PD deficiency. Pediatrics. 132(6):e1694-8, 2013
                                      4. Odutolu Y et al: Low bilirubin kernicterus with sepsis and hypoalbuminaemia. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                      5. Wallenstein MB et al: Jaundice and kernicterus in the moderately preterm infant. Clin Perinatol. 40(4):679-88, 2013
                                      6. Watchko JF et al: Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage--mechanisms and management approaches. N Engl J Med. 369(21):2021-30, 2013
                                      7. Okumura A et al: Kernicterus in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 123(6):e1052-8, 2009
                                      8. Gkoltsiou K et al: Serial brain MRI and ultrasound findings: relation to gestational age, bilirubin level, neonatal neurologic status and neurodevelopmental outcome in infants at risk of kernicterus. Early Hum Dev. 84(12):829-38, 2008
                                      9. Katar S et al: Clinical and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 21 patients with serious hyperbilirubinemia. J Child Neurol. 23(4):415-7, 2008
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Bilirubin (BR) or posticteric encephalopathy

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Hegde D et al: Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage. N Engl J Med. 370(10):978-9, 2014
                                                                          2. Bhutani VK et al: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and Rhesus disease of the newborn: incidence and impairment estimates for 2010 at regional and global levels. Pediatr Res. 74 Suppl 1:86-100, 2013
                                                                          3. Christensen RD et al: Neonatal death suspected to be from sepsis was found to be kernicterus with G6PD deficiency. Pediatrics. 132(6):e1694-8, 2013
                                                                          4. Odutolu Y et al: Low bilirubin kernicterus with sepsis and hypoalbuminaemia. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                                                          5. Wallenstein MB et al: Jaundice and kernicterus in the moderately preterm infant. Clin Perinatol. 40(4):679-88, 2013
                                                                          6. Watchko JF et al: Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage--mechanisms and management approaches. N Engl J Med. 369(21):2021-30, 2013
                                                                          7. Okumura A et al: Kernicterus in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 123(6):e1052-8, 2009
                                                                          8. Gkoltsiou K et al: Serial brain MRI and ultrasound findings: relation to gestational age, bilirubin level, neonatal neurologic status and neurodevelopmental outcome in infants at risk of kernicterus. Early Hum Dev. 84(12):829-38, 2008
                                                                          9. Katar S et al: Clinical and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 21 patients with serious hyperbilirubinemia. J Child Neurol. 23(4):415-7, 2008