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Kyphosis, Scoliosis
Paula J. Woodward, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Scoliosis: Abnormal lateral spine angulation
              • Kyphosis: Abnormal anterior spine angulation
              • Kyphoscoliosis: Kyphosis + scoliosis

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Arisoy R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of isolated scoliosis with Down syndrome. Genet Couns. 26(2):271-2, 2015
                                  2. Wax JR et al: Two- and three-dimensional prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Alagille syndrome. J Clin Ultrasound. 42(5):293-6, 2014
                                  3. Wei Q et al: Value of 3-dimensional sonography for prenatal diagnosis of vertebral formation failure. J Ultrasound Med. 32(4):595-607, 2013
                                  4. Chao TT et al: Fetal spine findings on MRI and associated outcomes in children with open neural tube defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(5):W956-61, 2011
                                  5. Prada CE et al: Severe cervical scoliosis in the fetus. Prenat Diagn. 31(12):1198-202, 2011
                                  6. Varras M et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal hemivertebra at 20 weeks' gestation with literature review. Int J Gen Med. 3:197-201, 2010
                                  7. Alvarez de la Rosa M et al: Genetic counseling in a case of congenital hemivertebrae. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 280(4):653-8, 2009
                                  8. Wax JR et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hemivertebrae: associations and outcomes. J Ultrasound Med. 27(7):1023-7, 2008
                                  9. Chen M et al: Sonographic features of hemivertebra at 13 weeks' gestation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 33(1):74-7, 2007
                                  10. Gul A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of hemivertebra in association with dextrocardia, atrioventricular septal defect and preaxial polydactyl. Prenat Diagn. 26(6):581-2, 2006
                                  11. Goldstein I et al: Hemivertebra: prenatal diagnosis, incidence and characteristics. Fetal Diagn Ther. 20(2):121-6, 2005
                                  12. Belmont PJ Jr et al: Intraspinal anomalies associated with isolated congenital hemivertebra: the role of routine magnetic resonance imaging. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(8):1704-10, 2004
                                  13. Campbell RM Jr et al: The effect of opening wedge thoracostomy on thoracic insufficiency syndrome associated with fused ribs and congenital scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(8):1659-74, 2004
                                  14. Hedequist D et al: Congenital scoliosis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 12(4):266-75, 2004
                                  15. Kose N et al: Congenital scoliosis. Med Sci Monit. 10(5):RA104-10, 2004
                                  16. Winter RB et al: Congenital scoliosis due to unilateral unsegmented bar: posterior spine fusion at age 12 months with 44-year follow-up. Spine. 29(3):E52-5, 2004
                                  17. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                  18. Dangerfield PH: The classification of spinal deformities. Pediatr Rehabil. 6(3-4):133-6, 2003
                                  19. Goldberg CJ et al: The natural history of early onset scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 91:68-70, 2002
                                  20. Harrison LA et al: Abnormal spinal curvature in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 11(9):473-9, 1992
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Scoliosis: Abnormal lateral spine angulation
                                              • Kyphosis: Abnormal anterior spine angulation
                                              • Kyphoscoliosis: Kyphosis + scoliosis

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Arisoy R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of isolated scoliosis with Down syndrome. Genet Couns. 26(2):271-2, 2015
                                                                  2. Wax JR et al: Two- and three-dimensional prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Alagille syndrome. J Clin Ultrasound. 42(5):293-6, 2014
                                                                  3. Wei Q et al: Value of 3-dimensional sonography for prenatal diagnosis of vertebral formation failure. J Ultrasound Med. 32(4):595-607, 2013
                                                                  4. Chao TT et al: Fetal spine findings on MRI and associated outcomes in children with open neural tube defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(5):W956-61, 2011
                                                                  5. Prada CE et al: Severe cervical scoliosis in the fetus. Prenat Diagn. 31(12):1198-202, 2011
                                                                  6. Varras M et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal hemivertebra at 20 weeks' gestation with literature review. Int J Gen Med. 3:197-201, 2010
                                                                  7. Alvarez de la Rosa M et al: Genetic counseling in a case of congenital hemivertebrae. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 280(4):653-8, 2009
                                                                  8. Wax JR et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hemivertebrae: associations and outcomes. J Ultrasound Med. 27(7):1023-7, 2008
                                                                  9. Chen M et al: Sonographic features of hemivertebra at 13 weeks' gestation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 33(1):74-7, 2007
                                                                  10. Gul A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of hemivertebra in association with dextrocardia, atrioventricular septal defect and preaxial polydactyl. Prenat Diagn. 26(6):581-2, 2006
                                                                  11. Goldstein I et al: Hemivertebra: prenatal diagnosis, incidence and characteristics. Fetal Diagn Ther. 20(2):121-6, 2005
                                                                  12. Belmont PJ Jr et al: Intraspinal anomalies associated with isolated congenital hemivertebra: the role of routine magnetic resonance imaging. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(8):1704-10, 2004
                                                                  13. Campbell RM Jr et al: The effect of opening wedge thoracostomy on thoracic insufficiency syndrome associated with fused ribs and congenital scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(8):1659-74, 2004
                                                                  14. Hedequist D et al: Congenital scoliosis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 12(4):266-75, 2004
                                                                  15. Kose N et al: Congenital scoliosis. Med Sci Monit. 10(5):RA104-10, 2004
                                                                  16. Winter RB et al: Congenital scoliosis due to unilateral unsegmented bar: posterior spine fusion at age 12 months with 44-year follow-up. Spine. 29(3):E52-5, 2004
                                                                  17. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                                                  18. Dangerfield PH: The classification of spinal deformities. Pediatr Rehabil. 6(3-4):133-6, 2003
                                                                  19. Goldberg CJ et al: The natural history of early onset scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 91:68-70, 2002
                                                                  20. Harrison LA et al: Abnormal spinal curvature in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 11(9):473-9, 1992