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Kyphosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Accentuated thoracic ± reduced normal cervical, lumbar lordotic spinal curvature
                  • Spinal curvature secondary to vertebral anomalies, degenerative spine disease, or idiopathic causes

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Angevine PD et al: Uncertainty in the relationship between sagittal alignment and patient-reported outcomes. Neurosurgery. 86(4):485-91, 2020
                                            2. Gardner A et al: The development of kyphosis and lordosis in the growing spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(19):E1109-15, 2018
                                            3. McDaniels-Davidson C et al: Kyphosis and incident falls among community-dwelling older adults. Osteoporos Int. 29(1):163-9, 2018
                                            4. Sheehan DD et al: Pediatric scoliosis and kyphosis: an overview of diagnosis, management, and surgical treatment. Pediatr Ann. 46(12):e472-80, 2017
                                            5. Wang Y et al: Proximal junctional kyphosis following posterior hemivertebra resection and short fusion in children younger than 10 years. J Spinal Disord Tech. 30(4):E370-6, 2017
                                            6. Ansari SF et al: Dorsal midline hemivertebra at the lumbosacral junction: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 22(1):84-9, 2015
                                            7. Cho W et al: The prevalence of abnormal preoperative neurological examination in Scheuermann kyphosis: correlation with X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical outcome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(21):1771-6, 2014
                                            8. Yaman O et al: Kyphosis and review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg. 24(4):455-65, 2014
                                            9. Giampietro PF et al: Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations. Mol Syndromol. 4(1-2):94-105, 2013
                                            10. Chan G et al: Update on congenital spinal deformities: preoperative evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1766-74, 2009
                                            11. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                            12. Campbell RM Jr et al: Growth of the thoracic spine in congenital scoliosis after expansion thoracoplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(3):409-20, 2003
                                            13. Hedequist DJ et al: The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine. 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1, 2003
                                            14. Kim YJ et al: Surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis. Spine. 26(20):2251-7, 2001
                                            15. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                            16. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                            17. Lonstein JE: Congenital spine deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):387-405, viii, 1999
                                            18. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                            19. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                            20. Rittler M et al: VACTERL association, epidemiologic definition and delineation. Am J Med Genet. 63(4):529-36, 1996
                                            21. Taybi H et al: Radiology of syndromes, metabolic disorders, and skeletal dysplasias. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby. 510-2, 1996
                                            22. Evans JA et al: VACTERL with hydrocephalus: further delineation of the syndrome(s) Am J Med Genet. 34(2):177-82, 1989
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Accentuated thoracic ± reduced normal cervical, lumbar lordotic spinal curvature
                                                            • Spinal curvature secondary to vertebral anomalies, degenerative spine disease, or idiopathic causes

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Angevine PD et al: Uncertainty in the relationship between sagittal alignment and patient-reported outcomes. Neurosurgery. 86(4):485-91, 2020
                                                                                      2. Gardner A et al: The development of kyphosis and lordosis in the growing spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(19):E1109-15, 2018
                                                                                      3. McDaniels-Davidson C et al: Kyphosis and incident falls among community-dwelling older adults. Osteoporos Int. 29(1):163-9, 2018
                                                                                      4. Sheehan DD et al: Pediatric scoliosis and kyphosis: an overview of diagnosis, management, and surgical treatment. Pediatr Ann. 46(12):e472-80, 2017
                                                                                      5. Wang Y et al: Proximal junctional kyphosis following posterior hemivertebra resection and short fusion in children younger than 10 years. J Spinal Disord Tech. 30(4):E370-6, 2017
                                                                                      6. Ansari SF et al: Dorsal midline hemivertebra at the lumbosacral junction: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 22(1):84-9, 2015
                                                                                      7. Cho W et al: The prevalence of abnormal preoperative neurological examination in Scheuermann kyphosis: correlation with X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical outcome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(21):1771-6, 2014
                                                                                      8. Yaman O et al: Kyphosis and review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg. 24(4):455-65, 2014
                                                                                      9. Giampietro PF et al: Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations. Mol Syndromol. 4(1-2):94-105, 2013
                                                                                      10. Chan G et al: Update on congenital spinal deformities: preoperative evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1766-74, 2009
                                                                                      11. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                                                                      12. Campbell RM Jr et al: Growth of the thoracic spine in congenital scoliosis after expansion thoracoplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(3):409-20, 2003
                                                                                      13. Hedequist DJ et al: The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine. 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1, 2003
                                                                                      14. Kim YJ et al: Surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis. Spine. 26(20):2251-7, 2001
                                                                                      15. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                                                                      16. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                                                                      17. Lonstein JE: Congenital spine deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):387-405, viii, 1999
                                                                                      18. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                                                                      19. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                                                                      20. Rittler M et al: VACTERL association, epidemiologic definition and delineation. Am J Med Genet. 63(4):529-36, 1996
                                                                                      21. Taybi H et al: Radiology of syndromes, metabolic disorders, and skeletal dysplasias. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby. 510-2, 1996
                                                                                      22. Evans JA et al: VACTERL with hydrocephalus: further delineation of the syndrome(s) Am J Med Genet. 34(2):177-82, 1989