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Lactation
Hilda Tso, DO; Wei Tse Yang, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Postpartum period in which milk is produced by mammary glands, secreted through ducts, and actively ejected through stimulation of suckling
            • Prepartum lactational changes evident on imaging as early as 12-weeks gestation

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Mammographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Image-Guided Biopsy

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Reporting Tips

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Oh SW et al: MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170203, 2017
                                  2. Parker S et al: Spectrum of pregnancy- and lactation-related benign breast findings. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 46(6):432-440, 2017
                                  3. de Holanda AA et al: Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation. Radiol Bras. 49(6):389-396, 2016
                                  4. Tirada N et al: Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients. Radiographics. 35(6):1751-65, 2015
                                  5. Joshi S et al: Breast disease in the pregnant and lactating patient: radiological-pathological correlation. Insights Imaging. 4(5):527-38, 2013
                                  6. Vashi R et al: Breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient: physiologic changes and common benign entities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):329-36, 2013
                                  7. Espinosa LA et al: The lactating breast: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of normal tissue and cancer. Radiology. 237(2):429-36, 2005
                                  8. Webb JA et al: The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation. Eur Radiol. 15(6):1234-40, 2005
                                  9. Giron GL et al: Postlactational microcalcifications. Breast J. 10(3):247-52, 2004
                                  10. Talele AC et al: The lactating breast: MRI findings and literature review. Breast J. 9(3):237-40, 2003
                                  11. Mercado CL et al: Calcifications associated with lactational changes of the breast: mammographic findings with histologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(3):685-9, 2002
                                  12. Hicks RJ et al: Pattern of uptake and excretion of (18)F-FDG in the lactating breast. J Nucl Med. 42(8):1238-42, 2001
                                  13. Stucker DT et al: New bilateral microcalcifications at mammography in a postlactational woman: case report. Radiology. 217(1):247-50, 2000
                                  14. Swinford AE et al: Mammographic appearance of the breasts during pregnancy and lactation: false assumptions. Acad Radiol. 5(7):467-72, 1998
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Postpartum period in which milk is produced by mammary glands, secreted through ducts, and actively ejected through stimulation of suckling
                                            • Prepartum lactational changes evident on imaging as early as 12-weeks gestation

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Mammographic Findings

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                    • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Oh SW et al: MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170203, 2017
                                                                  2. Parker S et al: Spectrum of pregnancy- and lactation-related benign breast findings. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 46(6):432-440, 2017
                                                                  3. de Holanda AA et al: Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation. Radiol Bras. 49(6):389-396, 2016
                                                                  4. Tirada N et al: Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients. Radiographics. 35(6):1751-65, 2015
                                                                  5. Joshi S et al: Breast disease in the pregnant and lactating patient: radiological-pathological correlation. Insights Imaging. 4(5):527-38, 2013
                                                                  6. Vashi R et al: Breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient: physiologic changes and common benign entities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):329-36, 2013
                                                                  7. Espinosa LA et al: The lactating breast: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of normal tissue and cancer. Radiology. 237(2):429-36, 2005
                                                                  8. Webb JA et al: The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation. Eur Radiol. 15(6):1234-40, 2005
                                                                  9. Giron GL et al: Postlactational microcalcifications. Breast J. 10(3):247-52, 2004
                                                                  10. Talele AC et al: The lactating breast: MRI findings and literature review. Breast J. 9(3):237-40, 2003
                                                                  11. Mercado CL et al: Calcifications associated with lactational changes of the breast: mammographic findings with histologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(3):685-9, 2002
                                                                  12. Hicks RJ et al: Pattern of uptake and excretion of (18)F-FDG in the lactating breast. J Nucl Med. 42(8):1238-42, 2001
                                                                  13. Stucker DT et al: New bilateral microcalcifications at mammography in a postlactational woman: case report. Radiology. 217(1):247-50, 2000
                                                                  14. Swinford AE et al: Mammographic appearance of the breasts during pregnancy and lactation: false assumptions. Acad Radiol. 5(7):467-72, 1998