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Language Network
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD
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TERMINOLOGY

  • Definitions

    • Receptive language: Perception of spoken or written language
    • Expressive language: Generating words and producing spoken language
    • Broca aphasia: Inability to speak, word-finding difficulty, poor speech fluency, inability to organize grammar
    • Wernicke aphasia: Inability to comprehend speech

IMAGING ANATOMY

  • Overview

    • Broca Area

      • Wernicke Area

        • Lateral Premotor Cortex (Exner Area)

          • Supplementary Motor Area

            • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

              • Default Mode Network

                • Auditory Cortex

                  • Visual Cortex

                    • Accessory Inferior Temporal and Occipital Language Regions

                      • Cerebellar Language Regions

                        • Basal Ganglia

                          • Arcuate Fasciculus White Matter Pathway (Dorsal Stream)

                            • Extreme Capsule White Matter Pathway (Ventral Stream)

                              ANATOMY IMAGING ISSUES

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                • Imaging Pitfalls

                                  • Language Lateralization

                                    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                                    • Multilingual Individuals

                                      • Sign Language Speakers (Hearing Impaired)

                                        • Right-Hemispheric Language Region Homologues

                                          • Crossed Hemispheric Dominance

                                            • Role of Wada Test

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Nettekoven C et al: Short- and long-term reliability of language fMRI. Neuroimage. 176:215-25, 2018
                                              2. Black DF et al: American Society of Functional Neuroradiology-recommended fmri paradigm algorithms for presurgical language assessment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(10):E65-73, 2017
                                              3. Smitha KA et al: Resting-state seed-based analysis: an alternative to task-based language fMRI and its laterality index. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(6):1187-92, 2017
                                              4. Méndez Orellana C et al: Crossed cerebrocerebellar language lateralization: an additional diagnostic feature for assessing atypical language representation in presurgical functional MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(3):518-24, 2015
                                              5. Sreedharan RM et al: Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children. Neuroradiology. 57(3):291-7, 2015
                                              6. Centeno M et al: Language dominance assessment in a bilingual population: validity of fMRI in the second language. Epilepsia. 55(10):1504-11, 2014
                                              7. Suarez RO et al: Passive fMRI mapping of language function for pediatric epilepsy surgical planning: validation using Wada, ECS, and FMAER. Epilepsy Res. 108(10):1874-88, 2014
                                              8. Friederici AD: The brain basis of language processing: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 91(4):1357-92, 2011
                                              9. Anderson JS et al: Decreased left posterior insular activity during auditory language in autism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):131-9, 2010
                                              10. Murdoch BE: The cerebellum and language: historical perspective and review. Cortex. 46(7):858-68, 2010
                                              11. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1191:62-88, 2010
                                              12. Binder JR et al: Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 19(12):2767-96, 2009
                                              13. Makris N et al: The extreme capsule in humans and rethinking of the language circuitry. Brain Struct Funct. 213(3):343-58, 2009
                                              14. Sanai N et al: Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. N Engl J Med. 358(1):18-27, 2008
                                              15. Saur D et al: Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(46):18035-40, 2008
                                              16. Hickok G et al: Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition. 92(1-2):67-99, 2004
                                              17. Medina LS et al: Functional MR imaging versus Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization: cost analysis. Radiology. 230(1):49-54, 2004
                                              18. Price CJ et al: The myth of the visual word form area. Neuroimage. 19(3):473-81, 2003
                                              19. Szaflarski JP et al: Language lateralization in left-handed and ambidextrous people: fMRI data. Neurology. 59(2):238-44, 2002
                                              20. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: contributions from functional neuroimaging. J Anat. 197 Pt 3:335-59, 2000
                                              21. Binder JR et al: Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 17(1):353-62, 1997
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Receptive language: Perception of spoken or written language
                                                • Expressive language: Generating words and producing spoken language
                                                • Broca aphasia: Inability to speak, word-finding difficulty, poor speech fluency, inability to organize grammar
                                                • Wernicke aphasia: Inability to comprehend speech

                                              IMAGING ANATOMY

                                              • Overview

                                                • Broca Area

                                                  • Wernicke Area

                                                    • Lateral Premotor Cortex (Exner Area)

                                                      • Supplementary Motor Area

                                                        • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

                                                          • Default Mode Network

                                                            • Auditory Cortex

                                                              • Visual Cortex

                                                                • Accessory Inferior Temporal and Occipital Language Regions

                                                                  • Cerebellar Language Regions

                                                                    • Basal Ganglia

                                                                      • Arcuate Fasciculus White Matter Pathway (Dorsal Stream)

                                                                        • Extreme Capsule White Matter Pathway (Ventral Stream)

                                                                          ANATOMY IMAGING ISSUES

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            • Imaging Pitfalls

                                                                              • Language Lateralization

                                                                                CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                                                                                • Multilingual Individuals

                                                                                  • Sign Language Speakers (Hearing Impaired)

                                                                                    • Right-Hemispheric Language Region Homologues

                                                                                      • Crossed Hemispheric Dominance

                                                                                        • Role of Wada Test

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Nettekoven C et al: Short- and long-term reliability of language fMRI. Neuroimage. 176:215-25, 2018
                                                                                          2. Black DF et al: American Society of Functional Neuroradiology-recommended fmri paradigm algorithms for presurgical language assessment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(10):E65-73, 2017
                                                                                          3. Smitha KA et al: Resting-state seed-based analysis: an alternative to task-based language fMRI and its laterality index. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(6):1187-92, 2017
                                                                                          4. Méndez Orellana C et al: Crossed cerebrocerebellar language lateralization: an additional diagnostic feature for assessing atypical language representation in presurgical functional MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(3):518-24, 2015
                                                                                          5. Sreedharan RM et al: Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children. Neuroradiology. 57(3):291-7, 2015
                                                                                          6. Centeno M et al: Language dominance assessment in a bilingual population: validity of fMRI in the second language. Epilepsia. 55(10):1504-11, 2014
                                                                                          7. Suarez RO et al: Passive fMRI mapping of language function for pediatric epilepsy surgical planning: validation using Wada, ECS, and FMAER. Epilepsy Res. 108(10):1874-88, 2014
                                                                                          8. Friederici AD: The brain basis of language processing: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 91(4):1357-92, 2011
                                                                                          9. Anderson JS et al: Decreased left posterior insular activity during auditory language in autism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):131-9, 2010
                                                                                          10. Murdoch BE: The cerebellum and language: historical perspective and review. Cortex. 46(7):858-68, 2010
                                                                                          11. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1191:62-88, 2010
                                                                                          12. Binder JR et al: Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 19(12):2767-96, 2009
                                                                                          13. Makris N et al: The extreme capsule in humans and rethinking of the language circuitry. Brain Struct Funct. 213(3):343-58, 2009
                                                                                          14. Sanai N et al: Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. N Engl J Med. 358(1):18-27, 2008
                                                                                          15. Saur D et al: Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(46):18035-40, 2008
                                                                                          16. Hickok G et al: Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition. 92(1-2):67-99, 2004
                                                                                          17. Medina LS et al: Functional MR imaging versus Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization: cost analysis. Radiology. 230(1):49-54, 2004
                                                                                          18. Price CJ et al: The myth of the visual word form area. Neuroimage. 19(3):473-81, 2003
                                                                                          19. Szaflarski JP et al: Language lateralization in left-handed and ambidextrous people: fMRI data. Neurology. 59(2):238-44, 2002
                                                                                          20. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: contributions from functional neuroimaging. J Anat. 197 Pt 3:335-59, 2000
                                                                                          21. Binder JR et al: Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 17(1):353-62, 1997