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Language Overview
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD
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Terminology

  • Definitions

    • Receptive language: Perception of spoken or written language
    • Expressive language: Generating words and producing spoken language
    • Broca aphasia: Inability to speak, word finding difficulty, poor speech fluency, inability to organize grammar
    • Wernicke aphasia: Inability to comprehend speech
    • Communicating (or conduction) aphasia: Inability to repeat speech and impaired naming but preserved comprehension and fluency

Imaging Anatomy

  • Overview

    • Broca Area

      • Wernicke Area

        • Lateral Premotor Cortex (Exner Area)

          • Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)

            • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

              • Default Mode Network

                • Auditory Cortex

                  • Visual Cortex

                    • Accessory Inferior Temporal and Occipital Language Regions

                      • Cerebellar Language Regions

                        • Basal Ganglia

                          • Arcuate Fasciculus White Matter Pathway (Dorsal Stream)

                            • Extreme Capsule White Matter Pathway (Ventral Stream)

                              Anatomy Imaging Issues

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                • Imaging Pitfalls

                                  Clinical Implications

                                  • Multilingual Individuals

                                    • Sign Language Speakers (Hearing Impaired)

                                      • Right-Hemispheric Language Region Homologues

                                        • Crossed Hemispheric Dominance

                                          • Role of Wada Test

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Friederici AD: The brain basis of language processing: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 91(4):1357-92, 2011
                                            2. Anderson JS et al: Decreased left posterior insular activity during auditory language in autism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):131-9, 2010
                                            3. Murdoch BE: The cerebellum and language: historical perspective and review. Cortex. 46(7):858-68, 2010
                                            4. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1191:62-88, 2010
                                            5. Binder JR et al: Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 19(12):2767-96, 2009
                                            6. Makris N et al: The extreme capsule in humans and rethinking of the language circuitry. Brain Struct Funct. 213(3):343-58, 2009
                                            7. Sanai N et al: Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. N Engl J Med. 358(1):18-27, 2008
                                            8. Saur D et al: Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(46):18035-40, 2008
                                            9. Hickok G et al: Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition. 92(1-2):67-99, 2004
                                            10. Medina LS et al: Functional MR imaging versus Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization: cost analysis. Radiology. 230(1):49-54, 2004
                                            11. Price CJ et al: The myth of the visual word form area. Neuroimage. 19(3):473-81, 2003
                                            12. Szaflarski JP et al: Language lateralization in left-handed and ambidextrous people: fMRI data. Neurology. 59(2):238-44, 2002
                                            13. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: contributions from functional neuroimaging. J Anat. 197 Pt 3:335-59, 2000
                                            14. Binder JR et al: Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 17(1):353-62, 1997
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            Terminology

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Receptive language: Perception of spoken or written language
                                              • Expressive language: Generating words and producing spoken language
                                              • Broca aphasia: Inability to speak, word finding difficulty, poor speech fluency, inability to organize grammar
                                              • Wernicke aphasia: Inability to comprehend speech
                                              • Communicating (or conduction) aphasia: Inability to repeat speech and impaired naming but preserved comprehension and fluency

                                            Imaging Anatomy

                                            • Overview

                                              • Broca Area

                                                • Wernicke Area

                                                  • Lateral Premotor Cortex (Exner Area)

                                                    • Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)

                                                      • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

                                                        • Default Mode Network

                                                          • Auditory Cortex

                                                            • Visual Cortex

                                                              • Accessory Inferior Temporal and Occipital Language Regions

                                                                • Cerebellar Language Regions

                                                                  • Basal Ganglia

                                                                    • Arcuate Fasciculus White Matter Pathway (Dorsal Stream)

                                                                      • Extreme Capsule White Matter Pathway (Ventral Stream)

                                                                        Anatomy Imaging Issues

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          • Imaging Pitfalls

                                                                            Clinical Implications

                                                                            • Multilingual Individuals

                                                                              • Sign Language Speakers (Hearing Impaired)

                                                                                • Right-Hemispheric Language Region Homologues

                                                                                  • Crossed Hemispheric Dominance

                                                                                    • Role of Wada Test

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Friederici AD: The brain basis of language processing: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 91(4):1357-92, 2011
                                                                                      2. Anderson JS et al: Decreased left posterior insular activity during auditory language in autism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):131-9, 2010
                                                                                      3. Murdoch BE: The cerebellum and language: historical perspective and review. Cortex. 46(7):858-68, 2010
                                                                                      4. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1191:62-88, 2010
                                                                                      5. Binder JR et al: Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 19(12):2767-96, 2009
                                                                                      6. Makris N et al: The extreme capsule in humans and rethinking of the language circuitry. Brain Struct Funct. 213(3):343-58, 2009
                                                                                      7. Sanai N et al: Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. N Engl J Med. 358(1):18-27, 2008
                                                                                      8. Saur D et al: Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(46):18035-40, 2008
                                                                                      9. Hickok G et al: Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition. 92(1-2):67-99, 2004
                                                                                      10. Medina LS et al: Functional MR imaging versus Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization: cost analysis. Radiology. 230(1):49-54, 2004
                                                                                      11. Price CJ et al: The myth of the visual word form area. Neuroimage. 19(3):473-81, 2003
                                                                                      12. Szaflarski JP et al: Language lateralization in left-handed and ambidextrous people: fMRI data. Neurology. 59(2):238-44, 2002
                                                                                      13. Price CJ: The anatomy of language: contributions from functional neuroimaging. J Anat. 197 Pt 3:335-59, 2000
                                                                                      14. Binder JR et al: Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 17(1):353-62, 1997