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Laryngeal Trauma
Troy A. Hutchins, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Mucosal injury, fracture, or dislocation of laryngeal cartilages

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Jain U et al: Management of the traumatized airway. Anesthesiology. 124(1):199-206, 2016
                                          2. Schweiger C et al: Post-intubation acute laryngeal injuries in infants and children: a new classification system. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 86:177-82, 2016
                                          3. Becker M et al: MDCT in the assessment of laryngeal trauma: value of 2D multiplanar and 3D reconstructions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):W639-47, 2013
                                          4. Robinson S et al: Multidetector row computed tomography of the injured larynx after trauma. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 30(3):188-94, 2009
                                          5. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                                          6. Bell RB et al: Management of laryngeal trauma. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):415-30, 2008
                                          7. Corneille MG et al: Upper airway injury and its management. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 20(1):8-12, 2008
                                          8. Juutilainen M et al: Laryngeal fractures: clinical findings and considerations on suboptimal outcome. Acta Otolaryngol. 128(2):213-8, 2008
                                          9. Harrahill M: Blunt laryngeal trauma. J Emerg Nurs. 32(6):549-50, 2006
                                          10. McCrystal DJ et al: Cricotracheal separation: a review and a case with bilateral recovery of recurrent laryngeal nerve function. J Laryngol Otol. 120(6):497-501, 2006
                                          11. Scaglione M et al: Acute tracheobronchial injuries: impact of imaging on diagnosis and management implications. Eur J Radiol. 59(3):336-43, 2006
                                          12. Verschueren DS et al: Management of laryngo-tracheal injuries associated with craniomaxillofacial trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 64(2):203-14, 2006
                                          13. Bhojani RA et al: Contemporary assessment of laryngotracheal trauma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 130(2):426-32, 2005
                                          14. Atkins BZ et al: Current management of laryngotracheal trauma: case report and literature review. J Trauma. 56(1):185-90, 2004
                                          15. Hwang SY et al: Management dilemmas in laryngeal trauma. J Laryngol Otol. 118(5):325-8, 2004
                                          16. Kuttenberger JJ et al: Diagnosis and initial management of laryngotracheal injuries associated with facial fractures. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 32(2):80-4, 2004
                                          17. Granholm T et al: The surgical airway. Respir Care Clin N Am. 7(1):13-23, 2001
                                          18. Pollanen MS: Subtle fatal manual neck compression. Med Sci Law. 41(2):135-40, 2001
                                          19. de Mello-Filho FV et al: The management of laryngeal fractures using internal fixation. Laryngoscope. 110(12):2143-6, 2000
                                          20. Perdikis G et al: Blunt laryngeal fracture: another airbag injury. J Trauma. 48(3):544-6, 2000
                                          21. Brosch S et al: Clinical course of acute laryngeal trauma and associated effects on phonation. J Laryngol Otol. 113(1):58-61, 1999
                                          22. LeBlang SD et al: Helical CT of cervical spine and soft tissue injuries of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am. 37(3):515-32, v-vi, 1999
                                          23. Hoover CA et al: Vocal fold hemorrhage following laryngeal trauma. Ear Nose Throat J. 77(5):364-6, 1998
                                          24. Castelijns JA et al: Imaging of the larynx. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 6(2):401-15, 1996
                                          25. Cozzi S et al: Difficult diagnosis of laryngeal blunt trauma. J Trauma. 40(5):845-6, 1996
                                          26. Duda JJ Jr et al: MR evaluation of epiglottic disruption. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(3):563-6, 1996
                                          27. Bent JP 3rd et al: The management of blunt fractures of the thyroid cartilage. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 110(2):195-202, 1994
                                          28. Kadish H et al: Blunt pediatric laryngotracheal trauma: case reports and review of the literature. Am J Emerg Med. 12(2):207-11, 1994
                                          29. Chen FH et al: Complete cricotracheal separation and third cervical spinal cord transection following blunt neck trauma: a case report of one survivor. J Trauma. 35(1):140-2, 1993
                                          30. Hastings RH et al: Neurologic deterioration associated with airway management in a cervical spine-injured patient. Anesthesiology. 78(3):580-3, 1993
                                          31. Meglin AJ et al: Three-dimensional computerized tomography in the evaluation of laryngeal injury. Laryngoscope. 101(2):202-7, 1991
                                          32. Luce EA: Maxillofacial trauma. Curr Probl Surg. 21(2):1-68, 1984
                                          33. Costin BS et al: Complications of tubes and catheters. South Med J. 76(2):218-28, 1983
                                          34. Dedo HH et al: Laryngeal reconstruction in acute and chronic injuries. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 16(2):373-89, 1983
                                          35. Handler SD et al: Otolaryngologic injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1(3):431-47, 1982
                                          36. Walters FJ et al: The hazards of anaesthesia in the injured patient. Br J Anaesth. 49(7):707-20, 1977
                                          37. Harris JH Jr: The significance of soft tissue injury in the roentgen diagnosis of trauma. CRC Crit Rev Clin Radiol Nucl Med. 6(3):295-368, 1975
                                          38. Priest RE et al: Laryngotracheal injuries. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 76(4):786-92, 1967
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Mucosal injury, fracture, or dislocation of laryngeal cartilages

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Jain U et al: Management of the traumatized airway. Anesthesiology. 124(1):199-206, 2016
                                                                                  2. Schweiger C et al: Post-intubation acute laryngeal injuries in infants and children: a new classification system. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 86:177-82, 2016
                                                                                  3. Becker M et al: MDCT in the assessment of laryngeal trauma: value of 2D multiplanar and 3D reconstructions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):W639-47, 2013
                                                                                  4. Robinson S et al: Multidetector row computed tomography of the injured larynx after trauma. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 30(3):188-94, 2009
                                                                                  5. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                                                                                  6. Bell RB et al: Management of laryngeal trauma. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):415-30, 2008
                                                                                  7. Corneille MG et al: Upper airway injury and its management. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 20(1):8-12, 2008
                                                                                  8. Juutilainen M et al: Laryngeal fractures: clinical findings and considerations on suboptimal outcome. Acta Otolaryngol. 128(2):213-8, 2008
                                                                                  9. Harrahill M: Blunt laryngeal trauma. J Emerg Nurs. 32(6):549-50, 2006
                                                                                  10. McCrystal DJ et al: Cricotracheal separation: a review and a case with bilateral recovery of recurrent laryngeal nerve function. J Laryngol Otol. 120(6):497-501, 2006
                                                                                  11. Scaglione M et al: Acute tracheobronchial injuries: impact of imaging on diagnosis and management implications. Eur J Radiol. 59(3):336-43, 2006
                                                                                  12. Verschueren DS et al: Management of laryngo-tracheal injuries associated with craniomaxillofacial trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 64(2):203-14, 2006
                                                                                  13. Bhojani RA et al: Contemporary assessment of laryngotracheal trauma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 130(2):426-32, 2005
                                                                                  14. Atkins BZ et al: Current management of laryngotracheal trauma: case report and literature review. J Trauma. 56(1):185-90, 2004
                                                                                  15. Hwang SY et al: Management dilemmas in laryngeal trauma. J Laryngol Otol. 118(5):325-8, 2004
                                                                                  16. Kuttenberger JJ et al: Diagnosis and initial management of laryngotracheal injuries associated with facial fractures. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 32(2):80-4, 2004
                                                                                  17. Granholm T et al: The surgical airway. Respir Care Clin N Am. 7(1):13-23, 2001
                                                                                  18. Pollanen MS: Subtle fatal manual neck compression. Med Sci Law. 41(2):135-40, 2001
                                                                                  19. de Mello-Filho FV et al: The management of laryngeal fractures using internal fixation. Laryngoscope. 110(12):2143-6, 2000
                                                                                  20. Perdikis G et al: Blunt laryngeal fracture: another airbag injury. J Trauma. 48(3):544-6, 2000
                                                                                  21. Brosch S et al: Clinical course of acute laryngeal trauma and associated effects on phonation. J Laryngol Otol. 113(1):58-61, 1999
                                                                                  22. LeBlang SD et al: Helical CT of cervical spine and soft tissue injuries of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am. 37(3):515-32, v-vi, 1999
                                                                                  23. Hoover CA et al: Vocal fold hemorrhage following laryngeal trauma. Ear Nose Throat J. 77(5):364-6, 1998
                                                                                  24. Castelijns JA et al: Imaging of the larynx. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 6(2):401-15, 1996
                                                                                  25. Cozzi S et al: Difficult diagnosis of laryngeal blunt trauma. J Trauma. 40(5):845-6, 1996
                                                                                  26. Duda JJ Jr et al: MR evaluation of epiglottic disruption. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(3):563-6, 1996
                                                                                  27. Bent JP 3rd et al: The management of blunt fractures of the thyroid cartilage. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 110(2):195-202, 1994
                                                                                  28. Kadish H et al: Blunt pediatric laryngotracheal trauma: case reports and review of the literature. Am J Emerg Med. 12(2):207-11, 1994
                                                                                  29. Chen FH et al: Complete cricotracheal separation and third cervical spinal cord transection following blunt neck trauma: a case report of one survivor. J Trauma. 35(1):140-2, 1993
                                                                                  30. Hastings RH et al: Neurologic deterioration associated with airway management in a cervical spine-injured patient. Anesthesiology. 78(3):580-3, 1993
                                                                                  31. Meglin AJ et al: Three-dimensional computerized tomography in the evaluation of laryngeal injury. Laryngoscope. 101(2):202-7, 1991
                                                                                  32. Luce EA: Maxillofacial trauma. Curr Probl Surg. 21(2):1-68, 1984
                                                                                  33. Costin BS et al: Complications of tubes and catheters. South Med J. 76(2):218-28, 1983
                                                                                  34. Dedo HH et al: Laryngeal reconstruction in acute and chronic injuries. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 16(2):373-89, 1983
                                                                                  35. Handler SD et al: Otolaryngologic injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1(3):431-47, 1982
                                                                                  36. Walters FJ et al: The hazards of anaesthesia in the injured patient. Br J Anaesth. 49(7):707-20, 1977
                                                                                  37. Harris JH Jr: The significance of soft tissue injury in the roentgen diagnosis of trauma. CRC Crit Rev Clin Radiol Nucl Med. 6(3):295-368, 1975
                                                                                  38. Priest RE et al: Laryngotracheal injuries. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 76(4):786-92, 1967