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Larynx Carcinoma
Philip R. Chapman, MD
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9

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Szyszko TA et al: PET/CT and PET/MRI in head and neck malignancy. Clin Radiol. 73(1):60-9, 2018
                                2. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. New York: Springer, 2017
                                3. Brandstorp-Boesen J et al: Impact of stage, management and recurrence on survival rates in laryngeal cancer. PLoS One. 12(7):e0179371, 2017
                                4. Ding W et al: Supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas have distinctive clinical features and prognosis based on subregion. PLoS One. 12(11):e0188322, 2017
                                5. Duprez F et al: Distant metastases in head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 39(9):1733-43, 2017
                                6. Marchiano E et al: Subglottic squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based study of 889 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 154(2):315-21, 2016
                                7. Kuno H et al: Primary staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: CT, MR imaging and dual-energy CT. Eur J Radiol. 83(1):e23-35, 2014
                                8. Chen SA et al: Patterns of extralaryngeal spread of laryngeal cancer: thyroid cartilage penetration occurs in a minority of patients with extralaryngeal spread of laryngeal squamous cell cancers. Cancer. 117(22):5047-51, 2011
                                9. An SY et al: Surgical management of locally advanced thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 18(2):119-23, 2010
                                10. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer, 2010
                                11. Goudakos JK et al: Management of the clinically negative neck (N0) of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 35(3):223-9, 2009
                                12. Gourin CG et al: A contemporary review of indications for primary surgical care of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 119(11):2124-34, 2009
                                13. Guido A et al: Combined 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in radiotherapy target delineation for head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 73(3):759-63, 2009
                                14. Higgins KM et al: Treatment of early-stage glottic cancer: meta-analysis comparison of laser excision versus radiotherapy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 38(6):603-12, 2009
                                15. McCoul ED et al: Meta-analysis of impaired vocal cord mobility as a prognostic factor in T2 glottic carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(5):479-86, 2009
                                16. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                                17. Blitz AM et al: Radiologic evaluation of larynx cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):697-713, vi, 2008
                                18. Chu EA et al: Laryngeal cancer: diagnosis and preoperative work-up. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):673-95, v, 2008
                                19. Ferlito A et al: Selective neck dissection (IIA, III): a rational replacement for complete functional neck dissection in patients with N0 supraglottic and glottic squamous carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 118(4):676-9, 2008
                                20. Hristov B et al: Radiotherapeutic management of laryngeal carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):715-40, vi, 2008
                                21. Chong VF: Tumour volume measurement in head and neck cancer. Cancer Imaging. 7 Spec No A:S47-9, 2007
                                22. Connor S: Laryngeal cancer: how does the radiologist help? Cancer Imaging. 7:93-103, 2007
                                23. Mendenhall WM et al: Multidisciplinary management of laryngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 69(2 Suppl):S12-4, 2007
                                24. Morton RP et al: Thyroid cancer invasion of neck structures: epidemiology, evaluation, staging and management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 15(2):89-94, 2007
                                25. Roh JL et al: 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography as guidance for primary treatment in patients with advanced-stage resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Surg Oncol. 33(6):790-5, 2007
                                26. Taguchi T et al: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin and uracil-ftegafur in patients with stage two (T2 N0 M0) squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. J Laryngol Otol. 120(6):478-81, 2006
                                27. Daisne JF et al: Tumor volume in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison at CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET and validation with surgical specimen. Radiology. 2004 Oct;233(1):93-100. Epub 2004 Aug 18. Erratum in: Radiology. 235(3):1086, 2005
                                28. Mendenhall WM et al: Management of T1-T2 glottic carcinomas. Cancer. 100(9):1786-92, 2004
                                29. Wax MK et al: The role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of the N-positive neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(3):163-7, 2003
                                30. Zinreich SJ: Imaging in laryngeal cancer: computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 35(5):971-91, v, 2002
                                31. Ferlito A et al: Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 63(4):202-7, 2001
                                32. Becker M: Neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilage: radiologic diagnosis and therapeutic implications. Eur J Radiol. 33(3):216-29, 2000
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Szyszko TA et al: PET/CT and PET/MRI in head and neck malignancy. Clin Radiol. 73(1):60-9, 2018
                                                              2. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. New York: Springer, 2017
                                                              3. Brandstorp-Boesen J et al: Impact of stage, management and recurrence on survival rates in laryngeal cancer. PLoS One. 12(7):e0179371, 2017
                                                              4. Ding W et al: Supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas have distinctive clinical features and prognosis based on subregion. PLoS One. 12(11):e0188322, 2017
                                                              5. Duprez F et al: Distant metastases in head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 39(9):1733-43, 2017
                                                              6. Marchiano E et al: Subglottic squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based study of 889 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 154(2):315-21, 2016
                                                              7. Kuno H et al: Primary staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: CT, MR imaging and dual-energy CT. Eur J Radiol. 83(1):e23-35, 2014
                                                              8. Chen SA et al: Patterns of extralaryngeal spread of laryngeal cancer: thyroid cartilage penetration occurs in a minority of patients with extralaryngeal spread of laryngeal squamous cell cancers. Cancer. 117(22):5047-51, 2011
                                                              9. An SY et al: Surgical management of locally advanced thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 18(2):119-23, 2010
                                                              10. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer, 2010
                                                              11. Goudakos JK et al: Management of the clinically negative neck (N0) of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 35(3):223-9, 2009
                                                              12. Gourin CG et al: A contemporary review of indications for primary surgical care of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 119(11):2124-34, 2009
                                                              13. Guido A et al: Combined 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in radiotherapy target delineation for head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 73(3):759-63, 2009
                                                              14. Higgins KM et al: Treatment of early-stage glottic cancer: meta-analysis comparison of laser excision versus radiotherapy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 38(6):603-12, 2009
                                                              15. McCoul ED et al: Meta-analysis of impaired vocal cord mobility as a prognostic factor in T2 glottic carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(5):479-86, 2009
                                                              16. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                                                              17. Blitz AM et al: Radiologic evaluation of larynx cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):697-713, vi, 2008
                                                              18. Chu EA et al: Laryngeal cancer: diagnosis and preoperative work-up. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):673-95, v, 2008
                                                              19. Ferlito A et al: Selective neck dissection (IIA, III): a rational replacement for complete functional neck dissection in patients with N0 supraglottic and glottic squamous carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 118(4):676-9, 2008
                                                              20. Hristov B et al: Radiotherapeutic management of laryngeal carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(4):715-40, vi, 2008
                                                              21. Chong VF: Tumour volume measurement in head and neck cancer. Cancer Imaging. 7 Spec No A:S47-9, 2007
                                                              22. Connor S: Laryngeal cancer: how does the radiologist help? Cancer Imaging. 7:93-103, 2007
                                                              23. Mendenhall WM et al: Multidisciplinary management of laryngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 69(2 Suppl):S12-4, 2007
                                                              24. Morton RP et al: Thyroid cancer invasion of neck structures: epidemiology, evaluation, staging and management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 15(2):89-94, 2007
                                                              25. Roh JL et al: 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography as guidance for primary treatment in patients with advanced-stage resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Surg Oncol. 33(6):790-5, 2007
                                                              26. Taguchi T et al: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin and uracil-ftegafur in patients with stage two (T2 N0 M0) squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. J Laryngol Otol. 120(6):478-81, 2006
                                                              27. Daisne JF et al: Tumor volume in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison at CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET and validation with surgical specimen. Radiology. 2004 Oct;233(1):93-100. Epub 2004 Aug 18. Erratum in: Radiology. 235(3):1086, 2005
                                                              28. Mendenhall WM et al: Management of T1-T2 glottic carcinomas. Cancer. 100(9):1786-92, 2004
                                                              29. Wax MK et al: The role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of the N-positive neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(3):163-7, 2003
                                                              30. Zinreich SJ: Imaging in laryngeal cancer: computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 35(5):971-91, v, 2002
                                                              31. Ferlito A et al: Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 63(4):202-7, 2001
                                                              32. Becker M: Neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilage: radiologic diagnosis and therapeutic implications. Eur J Radiol. 33(3):216-29, 2000