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Lateral Collateral Ligament Complex, Knee
Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR; Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC)
        • Definitions

          • Injury to LCLC of knee, including
            • Iliotibial band (ITB) [Iliotibial tract (ITT)]
            • Fibular collateral ligament (FCL) (sometimes referred to as "lateral collateral ligament")
            • Biceps femoris (BF)
            • Anterolateral ligament (ALL)
            • Lateral joint capsule
          • Conjoined tendon: FCL and BF join together to insert as one structure on posterolateral fibular head, adjacent to fibular styloid
          • Arcuate complex: Additional structures of posterolateral corner (PLC) attaching to fibular styloid, including
            • Popliteofibular ligament
            • Arcuate ligament
            • Fabellofibular ligament

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Porrino J Jr et al: The anterolateral ligament of the knee: MRI appearance, association with the Segond fracture, and historical perspective. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(2):367-73, 2015
                                      2. Sikka RS et al: Isolated fibular collateral ligament injuries in athletes. Sports Med Arthrosc. 23(1):17-21, 2015
                                      3. Yoo JH et al: Pure varus injury to the knee joint. Clin Orthop Surg. 7(2):269-74, 2015
                                      4. Geiger D et al: Posterolateral and posteromedial corner injuries of the knee. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):581-99, 2014
                                      5. Clarke JV et al: The reproducibility and repeatability of varus stress radiographs in the assessment of isolated fibular collateral ligament and grade-III posterolateral knee injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(2):485; author reply 485-6, 2009
                                      6. Valkering KP et al: Segond fracture. J Am Coll Surg. 208(4):646, 2009
                                      7. Gottsegen CJ et al: Avulsion fractures of the knee: imaging findings and clinical significance. Radiographics. 28(6):1755-70, 2008
                                      8. Beall DP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the collateral ligaments and the anatomic quadrants of the knee. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(6):983-1002, vi, 2007
                                      9. Bahk MS et al: Physical examination and imaging of the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 14(1):12-9, 2006
                                      10. Murphy KP et al: Surgical treatment of acute lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner injuries. Sports Med Arthrosc. 14(1):23-7, 2006
                                      11. Lee J et al: Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury. Skeletal Radiol. 32(11):619-27, 2003
                                      12. Juhng SK et al: MR evaluation of the "arcuate" sign of posterolateral knee instability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(3):583-8, 2002
                                      13. Campos JC et al: Pathogenesis of the Segond fracture: anatomic and MR imaging evidence of an iliotibial tract or anterior oblique band avulsion. Radiology. 219(2):381-6, 2001
                                      14. Recondo JA et al: Lateral stabilizing structures of the knee: functional anatomy and injuries assessed with MR imaging. Radiographics. 20 Spec No:S91-S102, 2000
                                      15. Weber WN et al: Lateral tibial rim (Segond) fractures: MR imaging characteristics. Radiology. 180(3):731-4, 1991
                                      16. Dietz GW et al: Segond tibial condyle fracture: lateral capsular ligament avulsion. Radiology. 159(2):467-9, 1986
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC)
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Injury to LCLC of knee, including
                                                • Iliotibial band (ITB) [Iliotibial tract (ITT)]
                                                • Fibular collateral ligament (FCL) (sometimes referred to as "lateral collateral ligament")
                                                • Biceps femoris (BF)
                                                • Anterolateral ligament (ALL)
                                                • Lateral joint capsule
                                              • Conjoined tendon: FCL and BF join together to insert as one structure on posterolateral fibular head, adjacent to fibular styloid
                                              • Arcuate complex: Additional structures of posterolateral corner (PLC) attaching to fibular styloid, including
                                                • Popliteofibular ligament
                                                • Arcuate ligament
                                                • Fabellofibular ligament

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Porrino J Jr et al: The anterolateral ligament of the knee: MRI appearance, association with the Segond fracture, and historical perspective. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(2):367-73, 2015
                                                                          2. Sikka RS et al: Isolated fibular collateral ligament injuries in athletes. Sports Med Arthrosc. 23(1):17-21, 2015
                                                                          3. Yoo JH et al: Pure varus injury to the knee joint. Clin Orthop Surg. 7(2):269-74, 2015
                                                                          4. Geiger D et al: Posterolateral and posteromedial corner injuries of the knee. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):581-99, 2014
                                                                          5. Clarke JV et al: The reproducibility and repeatability of varus stress radiographs in the assessment of isolated fibular collateral ligament and grade-III posterolateral knee injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(2):485; author reply 485-6, 2009
                                                                          6. Valkering KP et al: Segond fracture. J Am Coll Surg. 208(4):646, 2009
                                                                          7. Gottsegen CJ et al: Avulsion fractures of the knee: imaging findings and clinical significance. Radiographics. 28(6):1755-70, 2008
                                                                          8. Beall DP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the collateral ligaments and the anatomic quadrants of the knee. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(6):983-1002, vi, 2007
                                                                          9. Bahk MS et al: Physical examination and imaging of the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 14(1):12-9, 2006
                                                                          10. Murphy KP et al: Surgical treatment of acute lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner injuries. Sports Med Arthrosc. 14(1):23-7, 2006
                                                                          11. Lee J et al: Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury. Skeletal Radiol. 32(11):619-27, 2003
                                                                          12. Juhng SK et al: MR evaluation of the "arcuate" sign of posterolateral knee instability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(3):583-8, 2002
                                                                          13. Campos JC et al: Pathogenesis of the Segond fracture: anatomic and MR imaging evidence of an iliotibial tract or anterior oblique band avulsion. Radiology. 219(2):381-6, 2001
                                                                          14. Recondo JA et al: Lateral stabilizing structures of the knee: functional anatomy and injuries assessed with MR imaging. Radiographics. 20 Spec No:S91-S102, 2000
                                                                          15. Weber WN et al: Lateral tibial rim (Segond) fractures: MR imaging characteristics. Radiology. 180(3):731-4, 1991
                                                                          16. Dietz GW et al: Segond tibial condyle fracture: lateral capsular ligament avulsion. Radiology. 159(2):467-9, 1986