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Lateral Condylar Fracture
Christopher G. Anton, MD; A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Posterior oblique fracture through lateral condyle of humeral metaphysis with distal extension through unossified epiphyseal cartilage
              • Fracture line may dissipate within epiphyseal cartilage before reaching articular surface

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Bakarman KA et al: Humeral lateral condyle fractures in children: redefining the criteria for displacement. J Pediatr Orthop B. 25(5):429-33, 2016
                                    2. Kang S et al: Predisposing effect of elbow alignment on the elbow fracture type in children. J Orthop Trauma. 29(8):e253-8, 2015
                                    3. Narayanan S et al: Fishtail deformity - a delayed complication of distal humeral fractures in children. Pediatr Radiol. 45(6):814-9, 2015
                                    4. Salgueiro L et al: Rate and risk factors for delayed healing following surgical treatment of lateral condyle humerus fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop. ePub, 2015
                                    5. Little KJ: Elbow fractures and dislocations. Orthop Clin North Am. 45(3):327-40, 2014
                                    6. Song KS et al: Lateral condylar humerus fractures: which ones should we fix? J Pediatr Orthop. 32 Suppl 1:S5-9, 2012
                                    7. Bernthal NM et al: Recovery of elbow motion following pediatric lateral condylar fractures of the humerus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93(9):871-7, 2011
                                    8. Marcheix PS et al: Distal humerus lateral condyle fracture in children: when is the conservative treatment a valid option? Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 97(3):304-7, 2011
                                    9. Lemme K et al: Pediatric lateral condyle humeral fractures with and without associated elbow dislocations: a retrospective study. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 38(9):453-6, 2009
                                    10. Pennington RG et al: Milch's classification of paediatric lateral condylar mass fractures: analysis of inter- and intraobserver reliability and comparison with operative findings. Injury. 40(3):249-52, 2009
                                    11. Song KS et al: Internal oblique radiographs for diagnosis of nondisplaced or minimally displaced lateral condylar fractures of the humerus in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(1):58-63, 2007
                                    12. Chapman VM et al: Multidetector computed tomography of pediatric lateral condylar fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29(6):842-6, 2005
                                    13. Hasler CC et al: Prevention of growth disturbances after fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 10(2):123-30, 2001
                                    14. Landin LA: Fracture patterns in children. Analysis of 8,682 fractures with special reference to incidence, etiology and secular changes in a Swedish urban population 1950-1979. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 202:1-109, 1983
                                    15. Holmes JC et al: Tardy ulnar nerve palsy in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (135):128-31, 1978
                                    16. Jakob R et al: Observations concerning fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 57(4):430-6, 1975
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Posterior oblique fracture through lateral condyle of humeral metaphysis with distal extension through unossified epiphyseal cartilage
                                                • Fracture line may dissipate within epiphyseal cartilage before reaching articular surface

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Bakarman KA et al: Humeral lateral condyle fractures in children: redefining the criteria for displacement. J Pediatr Orthop B. 25(5):429-33, 2016
                                                                      2. Kang S et al: Predisposing effect of elbow alignment on the elbow fracture type in children. J Orthop Trauma. 29(8):e253-8, 2015
                                                                      3. Narayanan S et al: Fishtail deformity - a delayed complication of distal humeral fractures in children. Pediatr Radiol. 45(6):814-9, 2015
                                                                      4. Salgueiro L et al: Rate and risk factors for delayed healing following surgical treatment of lateral condyle humerus fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop. ePub, 2015
                                                                      5. Little KJ: Elbow fractures and dislocations. Orthop Clin North Am. 45(3):327-40, 2014
                                                                      6. Song KS et al: Lateral condylar humerus fractures: which ones should we fix? J Pediatr Orthop. 32 Suppl 1:S5-9, 2012
                                                                      7. Bernthal NM et al: Recovery of elbow motion following pediatric lateral condylar fractures of the humerus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93(9):871-7, 2011
                                                                      8. Marcheix PS et al: Distal humerus lateral condyle fracture in children: when is the conservative treatment a valid option? Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 97(3):304-7, 2011
                                                                      9. Lemme K et al: Pediatric lateral condyle humeral fractures with and without associated elbow dislocations: a retrospective study. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 38(9):453-6, 2009
                                                                      10. Pennington RG et al: Milch's classification of paediatric lateral condylar mass fractures: analysis of inter- and intraobserver reliability and comparison with operative findings. Injury. 40(3):249-52, 2009
                                                                      11. Song KS et al: Internal oblique radiographs for diagnosis of nondisplaced or minimally displaced lateral condylar fractures of the humerus in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(1):58-63, 2007
                                                                      12. Chapman VM et al: Multidetector computed tomography of pediatric lateral condylar fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29(6):842-6, 2005
                                                                      13. Hasler CC et al: Prevention of growth disturbances after fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 10(2):123-30, 2001
                                                                      14. Landin LA: Fracture patterns in children. Analysis of 8,682 fractures with special reference to incidence, etiology and secular changes in a Swedish urban population 1950-1979. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 202:1-109, 1983
                                                                      15. Holmes JC et al: Tardy ulnar nerve palsy in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (135):128-31, 1978
                                                                      16. Jakob R et al: Observations concerning fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 57(4):430-6, 1975