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Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Sanjeev A. Francis, MD, FACC
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)
            • Definitions

              • Increase in left ventricular (LV) wall thickness &/or myocardial mass due to increase in cardiac myocyte size

            IMAGING

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Echocardiographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Muntner P et al: Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. Circulation. 137(2):109-118, 2018
                                        2. Stewart MH et al: Prognostic implications of left ventricular hypertrophy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 61(5-6):446-55, 2018
                                        3. Fulton N et al: Utility of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular thickening. Insights Imaging. 8(2):279-93, 2017
                                        4. Armstrong AC et al: LV mass assessed by echocardiography and CMR, cardiovascular outcomes, and medical practice. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 5(8):837-48, 2012
                                        5. Rudolph A et al: Noninvasive detection of fibrosis applying contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy relation to remodeling. J Am Coll Cardiol. 53(3):284-91, 2009
                                        6. Maceira AM et al: Normalized left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 8(3):417-26, 2006
                                        7. Otto CM: Cardiomyopathies, hypertensive and pulmonary heart disease. In Otto CM: Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 183-203, 2000
                                        8. Devereux RB et al: Left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 15(6):1025-32, 1993
                                        9. Levy D et al: Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 322(22):1561-6, 1990
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Increase in left ventricular (LV) wall thickness &/or myocardial mass due to increase in cardiac myocyte size

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Muntner P et al: Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. Circulation. 137(2):109-118, 2018
                                                                              2. Stewart MH et al: Prognostic implications of left ventricular hypertrophy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 61(5-6):446-55, 2018
                                                                              3. Fulton N et al: Utility of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular thickening. Insights Imaging. 8(2):279-93, 2017
                                                                              4. Armstrong AC et al: LV mass assessed by echocardiography and CMR, cardiovascular outcomes, and medical practice. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 5(8):837-48, 2012
                                                                              5. Rudolph A et al: Noninvasive detection of fibrosis applying contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy relation to remodeling. J Am Coll Cardiol. 53(3):284-91, 2009
                                                                              6. Maceira AM et al: Normalized left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 8(3):417-26, 2006
                                                                              7. Otto CM: Cardiomyopathies, hypertensive and pulmonary heart disease. In Otto CM: Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 183-203, 2000
                                                                              8. Devereux RB et al: Left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 15(6):1025-32, 1993
                                                                              9. Levy D et al: Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 322(22):1561-6, 1990