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Leukemia: Osseous Manifestations
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
          • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
          • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
          • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
        • Synonyms

          • Granulocytic sarcoma, chloroma
        • Definitions

          • Leukemia: Neoplastic disorder of white blood cells
            • May be myeloid or lymphoid in origin
            • May be acute or chronic
          • Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): Extramedullary tumor of immature granulocytic cells in association with leukemia

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Fiz F et al: Adult advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: computational analysis of whole-body CT documents a bone structure alteration. Radiology. 271(3):805-13, 2014
                                      2. Chen BB et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging measurement of vertebral bone marrow perfusion may be indicator of outcome of acute myeloid leukemia patients in remission. Radiology. 258(3):821-31, 2011
                                      3. Adamson PC: Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 1:S38-41, 2009
                                      4. Berger FH et al: Diffuse marrow changes. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):104-10, 2009
                                      5. Desmond R et al: Multiple vertebral collapse as a presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 144(5):627, 2009
                                      6. Shih TT et al: Bone marrow angiogenesis magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: peak enhancement ratio is an independent predictor for overall survival. Blood. 113(14):3161-7, 2009
                                      7. Baur-Melnyk A et al: Oncohaematologic disorders affecting the skeleton in the elderly. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(4):785-98, vii, 2008
                                      8. Buck AK et al: First demonstration of leukemia imaging with the proliferation marker 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine. J Nucl Med. 49(11):1756-62, 2008
                                      9. Donovan A et al: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as septic arthritis of the shoulder. Skeletal Radiol. 37(11):1035-9, 2008
                                      10. Merrow AC et al: Leukemia and treatment: imprint on the growing skeleton. Pediatr Radiol. 38(5):594, 2008
                                      11. Sato TS et al: Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child. Pediatr Radiol. 38(12):1338-41, 2008
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
                                              • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
                                              • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
                                              • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Granulocytic sarcoma, chloroma
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Leukemia: Neoplastic disorder of white blood cells
                                                • May be myeloid or lymphoid in origin
                                                • May be acute or chronic
                                              • Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): Extramedullary tumor of immature granulocytic cells in association with leukemia

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Fiz F et al: Adult advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: computational analysis of whole-body CT documents a bone structure alteration. Radiology. 271(3):805-13, 2014
                                                                          2. Chen BB et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging measurement of vertebral bone marrow perfusion may be indicator of outcome of acute myeloid leukemia patients in remission. Radiology. 258(3):821-31, 2011
                                                                          3. Adamson PC: Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 1:S38-41, 2009
                                                                          4. Berger FH et al: Diffuse marrow changes. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):104-10, 2009
                                                                          5. Desmond R et al: Multiple vertebral collapse as a presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 144(5):627, 2009
                                                                          6. Shih TT et al: Bone marrow angiogenesis magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: peak enhancement ratio is an independent predictor for overall survival. Blood. 113(14):3161-7, 2009
                                                                          7. Baur-Melnyk A et al: Oncohaematologic disorders affecting the skeleton in the elderly. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(4):785-98, vii, 2008
                                                                          8. Buck AK et al: First demonstration of leukemia imaging with the proliferation marker 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine. J Nucl Med. 49(11):1756-62, 2008
                                                                          9. Donovan A et al: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as septic arthritis of the shoulder. Skeletal Radiol. 37(11):1035-9, 2008
                                                                          10. Merrow AC et al: Leukemia and treatment: imprint on the growing skeleton. Pediatr Radiol. 38(5):594, 2008
                                                                          11. Sato TS et al: Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child. Pediatr Radiol. 38(12):1338-41, 2008