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Leukemia
Jessica W. T. Leung, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Acute lymphocytic (= lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL)
                • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
                • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
                • Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)
              • Synonyms

                • Myeloid sarcoma = granulocytic sarcoma = chloroma (mass due to AML)
                  • Secondary infiltration of breast ducts or lobules by small round leukemic cells

              IMAGING

              • Mammographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Oravcova I et al: A unique clinical presentation of de novo acute promyelocytic leukemia as a myeloid sarcoma of the breast. Int J Hematol. 108(5): 550-3, 2018
                                              2. Arber DA et al: Initial diagnostic workup of acute leukemia: Guideline from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Hematology. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 141(10): 1342-93, 2017
                                              3. Aslan H et al: Breast involvement by hematologic malignancies: Ultrasound and elastography findings with clinical outcomes. J Clin Imaging Sci. 7:42, 2017
                                              4. Edison MN et al: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses. Pediatr Radiol. 47(1):104-107, 2017
                                              5. Pan L et al: Secondary breast carcinoma after completely remitted chronic myeloid leukemia following targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Breast Cancer. 24(6):790-793, 2017
                                              6. Wienbeck S et al: Radiological imaging characteristics of intramammary hematological malignancies: results from a german multicenter study. Sci Rep. 7(1):7435, 2017
                                              7. Fernandes Vieira V et al: Granulocytic Sarcoma Presenting as a Palpable Breast Lump. Front Surg. 3:67, 2016
                                              8. Liu B et al: Complete response of extramedullary relapse in breast of acute T lymphoblastic leukemia after bone marrow transplantation to chemoradiotherapy: a case report and literature review. BMC Cancer. 16(1):875, 2016
                                              9. Smolej L et al: Practical approach to management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arch Med Sci. 12(2):448-56, 2016
                                              10. Houghtelin AB et al: Extramedullary Breast Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Controlled with a Second Allogeneic/Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplant. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 4(1):50-3, 2015
                                              11. Jafarian N et al: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Presenting as a Collision Breast Tumor. Clin Breast Cancer. 15(4):e209-12, 2015
                                              12. Luzurier A et al: Breast infiltration by relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on FDG PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(5):811-2, 2015
                                              13. Zhu D et al: Synchronous breast carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a Chinese young female: a rare combination. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 8(5):5952-4, 2015
                                              14. Glazebrook KN et al: Breast imaging findings in haematological malignancies. Insights Imaging. 5(6):715-22, 2014
                                              15. Dialani V et al: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia involving the breast parenchyma, mimicker of invasive breast cancer: differentiation on breast MRI. Case Rep Med. 2013:603614, 2013
                                              16. Kim SJ: Magnetic resonance imaging features of breast leukemia. Magn Reson Med Sci. 12(4):309-13, 2013
                                              17. Surov A: Imaging findings of hematologic diseases affecting the breast. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 34(6):550-7, 2013
                                              18. Chetlen A et al: Is screening detected bilateral axillary adenopathy on mammography clinically significant? Breast J. 18(6):582-7, 2012
                                              19. Surov A et al: Breast leukemia: an update. Acta Radiol. 53(3):261-6, 2012
                                              20. Ginat DT et al: FDG PET/CT manifestations of hematopoietic malignancies of the breast. Acad Radiol. 17(8):1026-30, 2010
                                              21. Kumar PR et al: Isolated extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the breast of an adolescent girl: radiologic findings and discussion. Pediatr Radiol. 40(5):773-6, 2010
                                              22. Kinoshita T et al: Multicentric granulocytic sarcoma of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, and MR findings. Clin Imaging. 30(4):271-4, 2006
                                              23. Nishida H et al: MR findings of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts. Br J Radiol. 79(945):e112-5, 2006
                                              24. Patel T et al: The clinical importance of axillary lymphadenopathy detected on screening mammography: revisited. Clin Radiol. 60(1):64-71, 2005
                                              25. Rosen P: Rosen's Breast Pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 881-2, 2001
                                              26. Murray ME et al: The clinical importance of axillary lymphadenopathy detected on screening mammography. Clin Radiol. 52(6):458-61, 1997
                                              27. Walsh R et al: Axillary lymph nodes: mammographic, pathologic, and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(1):33-8, 1997
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Acute lymphocytic (= lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL)
                                                            • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
                                                            • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
                                                            • Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Myeloid sarcoma = granulocytic sarcoma = chloroma (mass due to AML)
                                                              • Secondary infiltration of breast ducts or lobules by small round leukemic cells

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • Mammographic Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Oravcova I et al: A unique clinical presentation of de novo acute promyelocytic leukemia as a myeloid sarcoma of the breast. Int J Hematol. 108(5): 550-3, 2018
                                                                                          2. Arber DA et al: Initial diagnostic workup of acute leukemia: Guideline from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Hematology. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 141(10): 1342-93, 2017
                                                                                          3. Aslan H et al: Breast involvement by hematologic malignancies: Ultrasound and elastography findings with clinical outcomes. J Clin Imaging Sci. 7:42, 2017
                                                                                          4. Edison MN et al: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses. Pediatr Radiol. 47(1):104-107, 2017
                                                                                          5. Pan L et al: Secondary breast carcinoma after completely remitted chronic myeloid leukemia following targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Breast Cancer. 24(6):790-793, 2017
                                                                                          6. Wienbeck S et al: Radiological imaging characteristics of intramammary hematological malignancies: results from a german multicenter study. Sci Rep. 7(1):7435, 2017
                                                                                          7. Fernandes Vieira V et al: Granulocytic Sarcoma Presenting as a Palpable Breast Lump. Front Surg. 3:67, 2016
                                                                                          8. Liu B et al: Complete response of extramedullary relapse in breast of acute T lymphoblastic leukemia after bone marrow transplantation to chemoradiotherapy: a case report and literature review. BMC Cancer. 16(1):875, 2016
                                                                                          9. Smolej L et al: Practical approach to management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arch Med Sci. 12(2):448-56, 2016
                                                                                          10. Houghtelin AB et al: Extramedullary Breast Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Controlled with a Second Allogeneic/Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplant. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 4(1):50-3, 2015
                                                                                          11. Jafarian N et al: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Presenting as a Collision Breast Tumor. Clin Breast Cancer. 15(4):e209-12, 2015
                                                                                          12. Luzurier A et al: Breast infiltration by relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on FDG PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(5):811-2, 2015
                                                                                          13. Zhu D et al: Synchronous breast carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a Chinese young female: a rare combination. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 8(5):5952-4, 2015
                                                                                          14. Glazebrook KN et al: Breast imaging findings in haematological malignancies. Insights Imaging. 5(6):715-22, 2014
                                                                                          15. Dialani V et al: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia involving the breast parenchyma, mimicker of invasive breast cancer: differentiation on breast MRI. Case Rep Med. 2013:603614, 2013
                                                                                          16. Kim SJ: Magnetic resonance imaging features of breast leukemia. Magn Reson Med Sci. 12(4):309-13, 2013
                                                                                          17. Surov A: Imaging findings of hematologic diseases affecting the breast. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 34(6):550-7, 2013
                                                                                          18. Chetlen A et al: Is screening detected bilateral axillary adenopathy on mammography clinically significant? Breast J. 18(6):582-7, 2012
                                                                                          19. Surov A et al: Breast leukemia: an update. Acta Radiol. 53(3):261-6, 2012
                                                                                          20. Ginat DT et al: FDG PET/CT manifestations of hematopoietic malignancies of the breast. Acad Radiol. 17(8):1026-30, 2010
                                                                                          21. Kumar PR et al: Isolated extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the breast of an adolescent girl: radiologic findings and discussion. Pediatr Radiol. 40(5):773-6, 2010
                                                                                          22. Kinoshita T et al: Multicentric granulocytic sarcoma of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, and MR findings. Clin Imaging. 30(4):271-4, 2006
                                                                                          23. Nishida H et al: MR findings of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts. Br J Radiol. 79(945):e112-5, 2006
                                                                                          24. Patel T et al: The clinical importance of axillary lymphadenopathy detected on screening mammography: revisited. Clin Radiol. 60(1):64-71, 2005
                                                                                          25. Rosen P: Rosen's Breast Pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 881-2, 2001
                                                                                          26. Murray ME et al: The clinical importance of axillary lymphadenopathy detected on screening mammography. Clin Radiol. 52(6):458-61, 1997
                                                                                          27. Walsh R et al: Axillary lymph nodes: mammographic, pathologic, and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(1):33-8, 1997