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Limb-Body Wall Complex
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Limb-body wall complex (LBWC)
            • Synonyms

              • Body stalk anomaly
            • Definitions

              • Rare lethal malformation complex with large abdominal wall defect (AWD), limb anomalies, &/or craniofacial anomalies

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Demographics

                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                          Selected References

                          1. Iqbal CW et al: Amniotic band syndrome: a single-institutional experience. Fetal Diagn Ther. 37(1):1-5, 2015
                          2. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                          3. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                          4. Mandrekar SR et al: Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus and spinal defect (OEIS Complex) with overlapping features of body stalk anomaly (limb body wall complex). Indian J Hum Genet. 20(2):195-8, 2014
                          5. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                          6. Adonakis G et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 12 weeks of gestation. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):218-20, 2008
                          7. Chen CP et al: Prenatal imaging of limb-body wall complex by magnetic resonance imaging. Prenat Diagn. 25(6):521-3, 2005
                          8. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly diagnosed in the 2nd trimester. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):342-4, 2003
                          9. Smrcek JM et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and management of body stalk anomaly: analysis of nine singleton and two multiple pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(4):322-8, 2003
                          10. Luehr B et al: Limb-body wall complex: a case series. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(2):132-7, 2002
                          11. Pumberger W et al: Limb-body wall complex: a compound anomaly pattern in body-wall defects. Pediatr Surg Int. 17(5-6):486-90, 2001
                          12. Martínez-Frías ML: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infants with body wall complex with and without limb deficiency. Am J Med Genet. 73(2):170-5, 1997
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Abbreviations

                                      • Limb-body wall complex (LBWC)
                                    • Synonyms

                                      • Body stalk anomaly
                                    • Definitions

                                      • Rare lethal malformation complex with large abdominal wall defect (AWD), limb anomalies, &/or craniofacial anomalies

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                          PATHOLOGY

                                          • General Features

                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                            • Demographics

                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Iqbal CW et al: Amniotic band syndrome: a single-institutional experience. Fetal Diagn Ther. 37(1):1-5, 2015
                                                  2. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                                                  3. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                                                  4. Mandrekar SR et al: Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus and spinal defect (OEIS Complex) with overlapping features of body stalk anomaly (limb body wall complex). Indian J Hum Genet. 20(2):195-8, 2014
                                                  5. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                                                  6. Adonakis G et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 12 weeks of gestation. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):218-20, 2008
                                                  7. Chen CP et al: Prenatal imaging of limb-body wall complex by magnetic resonance imaging. Prenat Diagn. 25(6):521-3, 2005
                                                  8. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly diagnosed in the 2nd trimester. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):342-4, 2003
                                                  9. Smrcek JM et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and management of body stalk anomaly: analysis of nine singleton and two multiple pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(4):322-8, 2003
                                                  10. Luehr B et al: Limb-body wall complex: a case series. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(2):132-7, 2002
                                                  11. Pumberger W et al: Limb-body wall complex: a compound anomaly pattern in body-wall defects. Pediatr Surg Int. 17(5-6):486-90, 2001
                                                  12. Martínez-Frías ML: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infants with body wall complex with and without limb deficiency. Am J Med Genet. 73(2):170-5, 1997