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Lingual Thyroid
Daniel E. Meltzer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Ectopic thyroid tissue
              • Definitions

                • Thyroid tissue in abnormal location in base of tongue (BOT) or floor of mouth

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Cruz-Dardíz N et al: Lingual thyroid gland: it's time for awareness. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. Epub, 2020
                                          2. Lukáš J et al: Ectopic thyroid with benign and malignant findings: a case series. Int J Surg Case Rep. 66:33-8, 2020
                                          3. Ersoy Callıoglu E et al: Lingual thyroid excision with transoral robotic surgery. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2015:548582, 2015
                                          4. Prisman E et al: Transoral robotic excision of ectopic lingual thyroid: case series and literature review. Head Neck. 37(8):E88-91, 2015
                                          5. Howard BE et al: Lingual thyroidectomy: the Mayo Clinic experience with transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 123(3):183-7, 2014
                                          6. Zander DA et al: Imaging of ectopic thyroid tissue and thyroglossal duct cysts. Radiographics. 34(1):37-50, 2014
                                          7. Ibrahim NA et al: Ectopic thyroid: etiology, pathology and management. Hormones (Athens). 10(4):261-9, 2011
                                          8. Gupta M et al: Lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E1, 2009
                                          9. Hari CK et al: Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma arising from lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E7, 2009
                                          10. Lai YT et al: Lingual thyroid. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):944-5, 2009
                                          11. Lin WN et al: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in an adolescent girl with hypertrophic lingual thyroid. Pediatr Pulmonol. 44(1):93-5, 2009
                                          12. McCoul ED et al: Concurrent lingual thyroid and undescended thyroglossal duct thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1937-40, 2009
                                          13. Arekapudi SR et al: Lingual thyroid. Pediatr Radiol. 37(9):940, 2007
                                          14. Kennedy TL et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope. 117(11):1969-73, 2007
                                          15. Barnes TW et al: Obstructive lingual thyroid causing sleep apnea: a case report and review of the literature. Sleep Med. 5(6):605-7, 2004
                                          16. Schoen EJ et al: The key role of newborn thyroid scintigraphy with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 114(6):e683-8, 2004
                                          17. Aktolun C et al: Diagnosis of complete ectopic lingual thyroid with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 26(11):933-5, 2001
                                          18. Danner C et al: Lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):276-81, 2001
                                          19. Takashima S et al: MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions. Acta Radiol. 42(4):376-82, 2001
                                          20. Lee CC et al: Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre. Neuroradiology. 40(5):335-7, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Ectopic thyroid tissue
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Thyroid tissue in abnormal location in base of tongue (BOT) or floor of mouth

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Cruz-Dardíz N et al: Lingual thyroid gland: it's time for awareness. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. Epub, 2020
                                                                                  2. Lukáš J et al: Ectopic thyroid with benign and malignant findings: a case series. Int J Surg Case Rep. 66:33-8, 2020
                                                                                  3. Ersoy Callıoglu E et al: Lingual thyroid excision with transoral robotic surgery. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2015:548582, 2015
                                                                                  4. Prisman E et al: Transoral robotic excision of ectopic lingual thyroid: case series and literature review. Head Neck. 37(8):E88-91, 2015
                                                                                  5. Howard BE et al: Lingual thyroidectomy: the Mayo Clinic experience with transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 123(3):183-7, 2014
                                                                                  6. Zander DA et al: Imaging of ectopic thyroid tissue and thyroglossal duct cysts. Radiographics. 34(1):37-50, 2014
                                                                                  7. Ibrahim NA et al: Ectopic thyroid: etiology, pathology and management. Hormones (Athens). 10(4):261-9, 2011
                                                                                  8. Gupta M et al: Lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E1, 2009
                                                                                  9. Hari CK et al: Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma arising from lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E7, 2009
                                                                                  10. Lai YT et al: Lingual thyroid. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):944-5, 2009
                                                                                  11. Lin WN et al: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in an adolescent girl with hypertrophic lingual thyroid. Pediatr Pulmonol. 44(1):93-5, 2009
                                                                                  12. McCoul ED et al: Concurrent lingual thyroid and undescended thyroglossal duct thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1937-40, 2009
                                                                                  13. Arekapudi SR et al: Lingual thyroid. Pediatr Radiol. 37(9):940, 2007
                                                                                  14. Kennedy TL et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope. 117(11):1969-73, 2007
                                                                                  15. Barnes TW et al: Obstructive lingual thyroid causing sleep apnea: a case report and review of the literature. Sleep Med. 5(6):605-7, 2004
                                                                                  16. Schoen EJ et al: The key role of newborn thyroid scintigraphy with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 114(6):e683-8, 2004
                                                                                  17. Aktolun C et al: Diagnosis of complete ectopic lingual thyroid with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 26(11):933-5, 2001
                                                                                  18. Danner C et al: Lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):276-81, 2001
                                                                                  19. Takashima S et al: MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions. Acta Radiol. 42(4):376-82, 2001
                                                                                  20. Lee CC et al: Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre. Neuroradiology. 40(5):335-7, 1998