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Lip and Oral Cavity Carcinoma
Philip R. Chapman, MD
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Cramer JD et al: Comparison of the seventh and eighth edition american joint committee on cancer oral cavity staging systems. Laryngoscope. 128(10):2351-60, 2018
                                2. Tsujikawa T et al: Role of PET/MRI in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers based on the 8th edition of the AJCC cancer staging system: a pictorial essay. Ann Nucl Med. 32(4):239-49, 2018
                                3. Weimar EAM et al: Radiologic-pathologic correlation of tumor thickness and its prognostic importance in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: implications for the eighth edition tumor, node, metastasis classification. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(10):1896-902, 2018
                                4. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                5. Ho AS et al: Metastatic lymph node burden and survival in oral cavity cancer. J Clin Oncol. 35(31):3601-9, 2017
                                6. Junn JC et al: CT accuracy of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in oral cavity cancer. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(2):364-70, 2017
                                7. Lydiatt WM et al: Head and Neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 67(2):122-37, 2017
                                8. Tangthongkum M et al: Treatment outcome of advance staged oral cavity cancer: concurrent chemoradiotherapy compared with primary surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 274(6):2567-72, 2017
                                9. Irani S: Distant metastasis from oral cancer: a review and molecular biologic aspects. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 6(4):265-71, 2016
                                10. van Dijk BA et al: Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands. Int J Cancer. 139(3):574-83, 2016
                                11. Montero PH et al: Cancer of the oral cavity. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 24(3):491-508, 2015
                                12. Weatherspoon DJ et al: Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence trends and disparities in the United States: 2000-2010. Cancer Epidemiol. 39(4):497-504, 2015
                                13. Rivera C et al: Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review). Oncol Lett. 8(1):7-11, 2014
                                14. Aiken AH: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of oral cavity cancer. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):27-45, 2013
                                15. Noguti J et al: Metastasis from oral cancer: an overview. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 9(5):329-35, 2012
                                16. Park JO et al: Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of tumor invasion depth in oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 47(5):381-6, 2011
                                17. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                18. Ayad T et al: Controversies in the management of retromolar trigone carcinoma. Head Neck. 31(3):398-405, 2009
                                19. Ferlito A et al: Elective management of the neck in oral cavity squamous carcinoma: current concepts supported by prospective studies. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 47(1):5-9, 2009
                                20. Babin E et al: PET/CT for assessing mandibular invasion by intraoral squamous cell carcinomas. Clin Otolaryngol. 33(1):47-51, 2008
                                21. Gourin CG et al: Identification of distant metastases with positron-emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with previously untreated head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 118(4):671-5, 2008
                                22. Kim SY et al: Utility of FDG PET in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. Eur J Surg Oncol. 34(2):208-15, 2008
                                23. Nakagawa T et al: 18F-FDG uptake in reactive neck lymph nodes of oral cancer: relationship to lymphoid follicles. J Nucl Med. 49(7):1053-9, 2008
                                24. Pentenero M et al: Accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 30(11):1488-96, 2008
                                25. Rajesh A et al: Can magnetic resonance imaging replace single photon computed tomography and computed tomography in detecting bony invasion in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 46(1):11-4, 2008
                                26. Schroeder U et al: Is there a need for positron emission tomography imaging to stage the N0 neck in T1-T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 117(11):854-63, 2008
                                27. Civantos F et al: Sentinel node biopsy in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 96(4):330-6, 2007
                                28. Kademani D: Oral cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Jul;82(7):878-87. Review. Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc. 82(8):1017, 2007
                                29. Kirsch C: Oral cavity cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):269-80, 2007
                                30. Nahmias C et al: Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scanning for preoperative staging of patients with oral/head and neck cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 65(12):2524-35, 2007
                                31. Stambuk HE et al: Oral cavity and oropharynx tumors. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):1-20, 2007
                                32. Vidiri A et al: Oral cavity and base of the tongue tumors. Correlation between clinical, MRI and pathological staging of primary tumor. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 26(4):575-82, 2007
                                33. Civantos FJ et al: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for 106 head and neck lesions: contrasts between oral cavity and cutaneous malignancy. Laryngoscope. 112(3 Pt 2 Suppl 109):1-15, 2006
                                34. Liao CT et al: Surgical outcome of T4a and resected T4b oral cavity cancer. Cancer. 107(2):337-44, 2006
                                35. Ng SH et al: Prospective study of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with palpably negative neck. J Clin Oncol. 24(27):4371-6, 2006
                                36. Ong CK et al: Imaging of tongue carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 6:186-93, 2006
                                37. Schöder H et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting nodal metastases in patients with oral cancer staged N0 by clinical examination and CT/MRI. J Nucl Med. 47(5):755-62, 2006
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Cramer JD et al: Comparison of the seventh and eighth edition american joint committee on cancer oral cavity staging systems. Laryngoscope. 128(10):2351-60, 2018
                                                              2. Tsujikawa T et al: Role of PET/MRI in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers based on the 8th edition of the AJCC cancer staging system: a pictorial essay. Ann Nucl Med. 32(4):239-49, 2018
                                                              3. Weimar EAM et al: Radiologic-pathologic correlation of tumor thickness and its prognostic importance in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: implications for the eighth edition tumor, node, metastasis classification. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(10):1896-902, 2018
                                                              4. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                              5. Ho AS et al: Metastatic lymph node burden and survival in oral cavity cancer. J Clin Oncol. 35(31):3601-9, 2017
                                                              6. Junn JC et al: CT accuracy of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in oral cavity cancer. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(2):364-70, 2017
                                                              7. Lydiatt WM et al: Head and Neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 67(2):122-37, 2017
                                                              8. Tangthongkum M et al: Treatment outcome of advance staged oral cavity cancer: concurrent chemoradiotherapy compared with primary surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 274(6):2567-72, 2017
                                                              9. Irani S: Distant metastasis from oral cancer: a review and molecular biologic aspects. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 6(4):265-71, 2016
                                                              10. van Dijk BA et al: Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands. Int J Cancer. 139(3):574-83, 2016
                                                              11. Montero PH et al: Cancer of the oral cavity. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 24(3):491-508, 2015
                                                              12. Weatherspoon DJ et al: Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence trends and disparities in the United States: 2000-2010. Cancer Epidemiol. 39(4):497-504, 2015
                                                              13. Rivera C et al: Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review). Oncol Lett. 8(1):7-11, 2014
                                                              14. Aiken AH: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of oral cavity cancer. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):27-45, 2013
                                                              15. Noguti J et al: Metastasis from oral cancer: an overview. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 9(5):329-35, 2012
                                                              16. Park JO et al: Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of tumor invasion depth in oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 47(5):381-6, 2011
                                                              17. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                                              18. Ayad T et al: Controversies in the management of retromolar trigone carcinoma. Head Neck. 31(3):398-405, 2009
                                                              19. Ferlito A et al: Elective management of the neck in oral cavity squamous carcinoma: current concepts supported by prospective studies. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 47(1):5-9, 2009
                                                              20. Babin E et al: PET/CT for assessing mandibular invasion by intraoral squamous cell carcinomas. Clin Otolaryngol. 33(1):47-51, 2008
                                                              21. Gourin CG et al: Identification of distant metastases with positron-emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with previously untreated head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 118(4):671-5, 2008
                                                              22. Kim SY et al: Utility of FDG PET in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. Eur J Surg Oncol. 34(2):208-15, 2008
                                                              23. Nakagawa T et al: 18F-FDG uptake in reactive neck lymph nodes of oral cancer: relationship to lymphoid follicles. J Nucl Med. 49(7):1053-9, 2008
                                                              24. Pentenero M et al: Accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 30(11):1488-96, 2008
                                                              25. Rajesh A et al: Can magnetic resonance imaging replace single photon computed tomography and computed tomography in detecting bony invasion in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 46(1):11-4, 2008
                                                              26. Schroeder U et al: Is there a need for positron emission tomography imaging to stage the N0 neck in T1-T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 117(11):854-63, 2008
                                                              27. Civantos F et al: Sentinel node biopsy in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 96(4):330-6, 2007
                                                              28. Kademani D: Oral cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Jul;82(7):878-87. Review. Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc. 82(8):1017, 2007
                                                              29. Kirsch C: Oral cavity cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):269-80, 2007
                                                              30. Nahmias C et al: Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scanning for preoperative staging of patients with oral/head and neck cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 65(12):2524-35, 2007
                                                              31. Stambuk HE et al: Oral cavity and oropharynx tumors. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):1-20, 2007
                                                              32. Vidiri A et al: Oral cavity and base of the tongue tumors. Correlation between clinical, MRI and pathological staging of primary tumor. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 26(4):575-82, 2007
                                                              33. Civantos FJ et al: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for 106 head and neck lesions: contrasts between oral cavity and cutaneous malignancy. Laryngoscope. 112(3 Pt 2 Suppl 109):1-15, 2006
                                                              34. Liao CT et al: Surgical outcome of T4a and resected T4b oral cavity cancer. Cancer. 107(2):337-44, 2006
                                                              35. Ng SH et al: Prospective study of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with palpably negative neck. J Clin Oncol. 24(27):4371-6, 2006
                                                              36. Ong CK et al: Imaging of tongue carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 6:186-93, 2006
                                                              37. Schöder H et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting nodal metastases in patients with oral cancer staged N0 by clinical examination and CT/MRI. J Nucl Med. 47(5):755-62, 2006