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Lipomyelomeningocele
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC)
              • Synonyms

                • Lipomyelocele (LMC), lipomyeloschisis, lipomatous malformation

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nonvascular Interventions

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Kole MJ et al: Currarino syndrome and spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(6):685-9, 2014
                                                  2. Shimizu M et al: An infant with PELVIS (perineal hemangioma, external genital malformations, lipomyelomeningocele, vesicorenal abnormalities, imperforate anus, and skin tag) syndrome misdiagnosed as diaper rash. J Pediatr. 165(3):634, 2014
                                                  3. Esmaeili A et al: Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study. Pediatr Neurosurg. 49(4):202-7, 2013
                                                  4. Hanif H et al: Tethered cord with tandem lipomyelomeningoceles, split cord malformation and thick filum. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(3):204-6, 2013
                                                  5. Al-Holou WN et al: The outcome of tethered cord release in secondary and multiple repeat tethered cord syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(1):28-36, 2009
                                                  6. Kang JK et al: Surgical management and outcome of tethered cord syndrome in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 46(5):468-71, 2009
                                                  7. Maher CO et al: Urological outcome following multiple repeat spinal cord untethering operations. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(3):275-9, 2009
                                                  8. McGirt MJ et al: Pediatric tethered cord syndrome: response of scoliosis to untethering procedures. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(3):270-4, 2009
                                                  9. Muthukumar N: Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations: part I--Classification. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 151(3):179-88; discussion 197, 2009
                                                  10. Oi S et al: Embryopathogenetic surgicoanatomical classification of dysraphism and surgical outcome of spinal lipoma: a nationwide multicenter cooperative study in Japan. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):412-9, 2009
                                                  11. Samuels R et al: Incidence of symptomatic retethering after surgical management of pediatric tethered cord syndrome with or without duraplasty. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(9):1085-9, 2009
                                                  12. De Wals P et al: Impact of folic acid food fortification on the birth prevalence of lipomyelomeningocele in Canada. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 82(2):106-9, 2008
                                                  13. Waldau B et al: Development of an acquired Chiari malformation Type I in the setting of an untreated lipomyelomeningocele. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1(2):164-6, 2008
                                                  14. Cochrane DD: Cord untethering for lipomyelomeningocele: expectation after surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 23(2):1-7, 2007
                                                  15. Morioka T et al: Dynamic morphological changes in lumbosacral lipoma during the first months of life revealed by constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging. Childs Nerv Syst. 23(4):415-20, 2007
                                                  16. Tubbs RS et al: Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation Type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 106(3 Suppl):196-200, 2007
                                                  17. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2 Suppl Pediatrics):98-100, 2004
                                                  18. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2):98-100, 2004
                                                  19. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                                  20. Schoenmakers MA et al: Long-term outcome of neurosurgical untethering on neurosegmental motor and ambulation levels. Dev Med Child Neurol. 45(8):551-5, 2003
                                                  21. Bulsara KR et al: Clinical outcome differences for lipomyelomeningoceles, intraspinal lipomas, and lipomas of the filum terminale. Neurosurg Rev. 24(4):192-4, 2001
                                                  22. Tortori-Donati P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal dysraphism. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 12(6):375-409, 2001
                                                  23. Cochrane DD et al: The patterns of late deterioration in patients with transitional lipomyelomeningocele. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 10 Suppl 1:13-7, 2000
                                                  24. Kim SY et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lipomyelomeningocele. J Ultrasound Med. 19(11):801-5, 2000
                                                  25. Lee JH et al: Combined anomaly of intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(3):595-600, 2000
                                                  26. Colak A et al: Recurrent tethering: a common long-term problem after lipomyelomeningocele repair. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(4):184-90, 1998
                                                  27. Iskandar BJ et al: Congenital tethered spinal cord syndrome in adults. J Neurosurg. 88(6):958-61, 1998
                                                  28. Wu HY et al: Long-term benefits of early neurosurgery for lipomyelomeningocele. J Urol. 160(2):511-4, 1998
                                                  29. Chreston J et al: Sonographic detection of lipomyelomeningocele: a retrospective documentation. J Clin Ultrasound. 25(1):50-1, 1997
                                                  30. Kanev PM et al: Reflections on the natural history of lipomyelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg. 22(3):137-40, 1995
                                                  31. Sutton LN: Lipomyelomeningocele. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 6(2):325-38, 1995
                                                  32. Herman JM et al: Analysis of 153 patients with myelomeningocele or spinal lipoma reoperated upon for a tethered cord. Presentation, management and outcome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 19(5):243-9, 1993
                                                  33. Kanev PM et al: Management and long-term follow-up review of children with lipomyelomeningocele, 1952-1987. J Neurosurg. 73(1):48-52, 1990
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                                              • Abbreviations

                                                                • Lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC)
                                                              • Synonyms

                                                                • Lipomyelocele (LMC), lipomyeloschisis, lipomatous malformation

                                                              IMAGING

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                                  • CT Findings

                                                                    • MR Findings

                                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                        • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Kole MJ et al: Currarino syndrome and spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(6):685-9, 2014
                                                                                                  2. Shimizu M et al: An infant with PELVIS (perineal hemangioma, external genital malformations, lipomyelomeningocele, vesicorenal abnormalities, imperforate anus, and skin tag) syndrome misdiagnosed as diaper rash. J Pediatr. 165(3):634, 2014
                                                                                                  3. Esmaeili A et al: Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study. Pediatr Neurosurg. 49(4):202-7, 2013
                                                                                                  4. Hanif H et al: Tethered cord with tandem lipomyelomeningoceles, split cord malformation and thick filum. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(3):204-6, 2013
                                                                                                  5. Al-Holou WN et al: The outcome of tethered cord release in secondary and multiple repeat tethered cord syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(1):28-36, 2009
                                                                                                  6. Kang JK et al: Surgical management and outcome of tethered cord syndrome in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 46(5):468-71, 2009
                                                                                                  7. Maher CO et al: Urological outcome following multiple repeat spinal cord untethering operations. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(3):275-9, 2009
                                                                                                  8. McGirt MJ et al: Pediatric tethered cord syndrome: response of scoliosis to untethering procedures. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(3):270-4, 2009
                                                                                                  9. Muthukumar N: Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations: part I--Classification. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 151(3):179-88; discussion 197, 2009
                                                                                                  10. Oi S et al: Embryopathogenetic surgicoanatomical classification of dysraphism and surgical outcome of spinal lipoma: a nationwide multicenter cooperative study in Japan. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):412-9, 2009
                                                                                                  11. Samuels R et al: Incidence of symptomatic retethering after surgical management of pediatric tethered cord syndrome with or without duraplasty. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(9):1085-9, 2009
                                                                                                  12. De Wals P et al: Impact of folic acid food fortification on the birth prevalence of lipomyelomeningocele in Canada. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 82(2):106-9, 2008
                                                                                                  13. Waldau B et al: Development of an acquired Chiari malformation Type I in the setting of an untreated lipomyelomeningocele. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1(2):164-6, 2008
                                                                                                  14. Cochrane DD: Cord untethering for lipomyelomeningocele: expectation after surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 23(2):1-7, 2007
                                                                                                  15. Morioka T et al: Dynamic morphological changes in lumbosacral lipoma during the first months of life revealed by constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging. Childs Nerv Syst. 23(4):415-20, 2007
                                                                                                  16. Tubbs RS et al: Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation Type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 106(3 Suppl):196-200, 2007
                                                                                                  17. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2 Suppl Pediatrics):98-100, 2004
                                                                                                  18. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2):98-100, 2004
                                                                                                  19. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                                                                                  20. Schoenmakers MA et al: Long-term outcome of neurosurgical untethering on neurosegmental motor and ambulation levels. Dev Med Child Neurol. 45(8):551-5, 2003
                                                                                                  21. Bulsara KR et al: Clinical outcome differences for lipomyelomeningoceles, intraspinal lipomas, and lipomas of the filum terminale. Neurosurg Rev. 24(4):192-4, 2001
                                                                                                  22. Tortori-Donati P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal dysraphism. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 12(6):375-409, 2001
                                                                                                  23. Cochrane DD et al: The patterns of late deterioration in patients with transitional lipomyelomeningocele. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 10 Suppl 1:13-7, 2000
                                                                                                  24. Kim SY et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lipomyelomeningocele. J Ultrasound Med. 19(11):801-5, 2000
                                                                                                  25. Lee JH et al: Combined anomaly of intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(3):595-600, 2000
                                                                                                  26. Colak A et al: Recurrent tethering: a common long-term problem after lipomyelomeningocele repair. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(4):184-90, 1998
                                                                                                  27. Iskandar BJ et al: Congenital tethered spinal cord syndrome in adults. J Neurosurg. 88(6):958-61, 1998
                                                                                                  28. Wu HY et al: Long-term benefits of early neurosurgery for lipomyelomeningocele. J Urol. 160(2):511-4, 1998
                                                                                                  29. Chreston J et al: Sonographic detection of lipomyelomeningocele: a retrospective documentation. J Clin Ultrasound. 25(1):50-1, 1997
                                                                                                  30. Kanev PM et al: Reflections on the natural history of lipomyelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg. 22(3):137-40, 1995
                                                                                                  31. Sutton LN: Lipomyelomeningocele. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 6(2):325-38, 1995
                                                                                                  32. Herman JM et al: Analysis of 153 patients with myelomeningocele or spinal lipoma reoperated upon for a tethered cord. Presentation, management and outcome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 19(5):243-9, 1993
                                                                                                  33. Kanev PM et al: Management and long-term follow-up review of children with lipomyelomeningocele, 1952-1987. J Neurosurg. 73(1):48-52, 1990