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Lipomyelomeningocele
Usha D. Nagaraj, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC), lipomyelocele (LMC)
            • Synonyms

              • Lipoma with dorsal defect (includes spectrum of LMCs & LMMCs)
              • Lipomyeloschisis

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Vora TK et al: Early- and long-term surgical outcomes in 109 children with lipomyelomeningocele. Childs Nerv Syst. 37(5):1623-32, 2021
                                            2. Rhodes RH: Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations. Part 1. Spinal lipomas, lipomyeloceles, and lipomyelomeningoceles. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 1-52, 2019
                                            3. Sarmento-Gonçalves I et al: Fetal lipomyelomeningocele: a closed neural tube defect diagnosed at second-trimester ultrasound examination. J Clin Ultrasound. 47(3):169-71, 2019
                                            4. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. 6th ed. Wolters Kluwer. 996-98, 2018
                                            5. O'Neill BR et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect occult spinal dysraphism in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 19(2):217-6, 2017
                                            6. Yu X et al: LUMBAR syndrome: a case manifesting as cutaneous infantile hemangiomas of the lower extremity, perineum and gluteal region, and a review of published work. J Dermatol. 44(7):808-12, 2017
                                            7. Goodrich DJ et al: Symptomatic retethering of the spinal cord in postoperative lipomyelomeningocele patients: a meta-analysis. Childs Nerv Syst. 32(1):121-6, 2016
                                            8. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                                            9. May L et al: Lack of uniformity in the clinical assessment of children with lipomyelomeningocele: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future. Childs Nerv Syst. 29(6):961-70, 2013
                                            10. Segal LS et al: The spectrum of musculoskeletal problems in lipomyelomeningocele. J Child Orthop. 7(6):513-9, 2013
                                            11. Sarris CE et al: Lipomyelomeningocele: pathology, treatment, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 33(4):E3, 2012
                                            12. Rufener SL et al: Congenital spine and spinal cord malformations--pictorial review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(3 Suppl):S26-37, 2010
                                            13. Oi S et al: Embryopathogenetic surgicoanatomical classification of dysraphism and surgical outcome of spinal lipoma: a nationwide multicenter cooperative study in Japan. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):412-9, 2009
                                            14. Cochrane DD: Cord untethering for lipomyelomeningocele: expectation after surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 23(2):1-7, 2007
                                            15. Tubbs RS et al: Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 106(3 Suppl):196-200, 2007
                                            16. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2):98-100, 2004
                                            17. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                            18. Schoenmakers MA et al: Long-term outcome of neurosurgical untethering on neurosegmental motor and ambulation levels. Dev Med Child Neurol. 45(8):551-5, 2003
                                            19. Kim SY et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lipomyelomeningocele. J Ultrasound Med. 19(11):801-5, 2000
                                            20. Tortori-Donati P et al: Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 42(7): 471-91, 2000
                                            21. Colak A et al: Recurrent tethering: a common long-term problem after lipomyelomeningocele repair. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(4):184-90, 1998
                                            22. Chreston J et al: Sonographic detection of lipomyelomeningocele: a retrospective documentation. J Clin Ultrasound. 25(1):50-1, 1997
                                            23. Pierre-Kahn A et al: Congenital lumbosacral lipomas. Childs Nerv Syst. 13(6):298-334; discussion 335, 1997
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC), lipomyelocele (LMC)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Lipoma with dorsal defect (includes spectrum of LMCs & LMMCs)
                                                        • Lipomyeloschisis

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Vora TK et al: Early- and long-term surgical outcomes in 109 children with lipomyelomeningocele. Childs Nerv Syst. 37(5):1623-32, 2021
                                                                                      2. Rhodes RH: Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations. Part 1. Spinal lipomas, lipomyeloceles, and lipomyelomeningoceles. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 1-52, 2019
                                                                                      3. Sarmento-Gonçalves I et al: Fetal lipomyelomeningocele: a closed neural tube defect diagnosed at second-trimester ultrasound examination. J Clin Ultrasound. 47(3):169-71, 2019
                                                                                      4. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. 6th ed. Wolters Kluwer. 996-98, 2018
                                                                                      5. O'Neill BR et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect occult spinal dysraphism in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 19(2):217-6, 2017
                                                                                      6. Yu X et al: LUMBAR syndrome: a case manifesting as cutaneous infantile hemangiomas of the lower extremity, perineum and gluteal region, and a review of published work. J Dermatol. 44(7):808-12, 2017
                                                                                      7. Goodrich DJ et al: Symptomatic retethering of the spinal cord in postoperative lipomyelomeningocele patients: a meta-analysis. Childs Nerv Syst. 32(1):121-6, 2016
                                                                                      8. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                                                                                      9. May L et al: Lack of uniformity in the clinical assessment of children with lipomyelomeningocele: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future. Childs Nerv Syst. 29(6):961-70, 2013
                                                                                      10. Segal LS et al: The spectrum of musculoskeletal problems in lipomyelomeningocele. J Child Orthop. 7(6):513-9, 2013
                                                                                      11. Sarris CE et al: Lipomyelomeningocele: pathology, treatment, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 33(4):E3, 2012
                                                                                      12. Rufener SL et al: Congenital spine and spinal cord malformations--pictorial review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(3 Suppl):S26-37, 2010
                                                                                      13. Oi S et al: Embryopathogenetic surgicoanatomical classification of dysraphism and surgical outcome of spinal lipoma: a nationwide multicenter cooperative study in Japan. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):412-9, 2009
                                                                                      14. Cochrane DD: Cord untethering for lipomyelomeningocele: expectation after surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 23(2):1-7, 2007
                                                                                      15. Tubbs RS et al: Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 106(3 Suppl):196-200, 2007
                                                                                      16. McNeely PD et al: Ineffectiveness of dietary folic acid supplementation on the incidence of lipomyelomeningocele: pathogenetic implications. J Neurosurg. 100(2):98-100, 2004
                                                                                      17. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                                                                      18. Schoenmakers MA et al: Long-term outcome of neurosurgical untethering on neurosegmental motor and ambulation levels. Dev Med Child Neurol. 45(8):551-5, 2003
                                                                                      19. Kim SY et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lipomyelomeningocele. J Ultrasound Med. 19(11):801-5, 2000
                                                                                      20. Tortori-Donati P et al: Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 42(7): 471-91, 2000
                                                                                      21. Colak A et al: Recurrent tethering: a common long-term problem after lipomyelomeningocele repair. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(4):184-90, 1998
                                                                                      22. Chreston J et al: Sonographic detection of lipomyelomeningocele: a retrospective documentation. J Clin Ultrasound. 25(1):50-1, 1997
                                                                                      23. Pierre-Kahn A et al: Congenital lumbosacral lipomas. Childs Nerv Syst. 13(6):298-334; discussion 335, 1997