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Lithium Nephropathy
Alessandro Furlan, MD; Amir A. Borhani, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Lithium-induced nephropathy
              • Lithium nephrotoxicity
            • Definitions

              • Spectrum of functional and structural renal damage caused by lithium ingestion
              • Can occur in context of suicidal attempts, elevated lithium level, or therapeutic lithium level
              • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and chronic renal insufficiency are most common presentations

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Wood CG 3rd et al: CT and MR Imaging for Evaluation of Cystic Renal Lesions and Diseases. Radiographics. 35(1):125-41, 2015
                                    2. Di Salvo DN et al: Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):637-44, 2012
                                    3. McKnight RF et al: Lithium toxicity profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 379(9817):721-8, 2012
                                    4. Slaughter A et al: MRI findings in chronic lithium nephropathy: a case report. J Radiol Case Rep. 4(8):15-21, 2010
                                    5. van Melick EJ et al: Renal effects of long-term lithium therapy in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 23(7):685-92, 2008
                                    6. Farres MT et al: Chronic lithium nephropathy: MR imaging for diagnosis. Radiology. 229(2):570-4, 2003
                                    7. Markowitz GS et al: Lithium nephrotoxicity: a progressive combined glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 11(8):1439-48, 2000
                                    8. Boton R et al: Prevalence, pathogenesis, and treatment of renal dysfunction associated with chronic lithium therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. 10(5):329-45, 1987
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Lithium-induced nephropathy
                                                • Lithium nephrotoxicity
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Spectrum of functional and structural renal damage caused by lithium ingestion
                                                • Can occur in context of suicidal attempts, elevated lithium level, or therapeutic lithium level
                                                • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and chronic renal insufficiency are most common presentations

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Wood CG 3rd et al: CT and MR Imaging for Evaluation of Cystic Renal Lesions and Diseases. Radiographics. 35(1):125-41, 2015
                                                                      2. Di Salvo DN et al: Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):637-44, 2012
                                                                      3. McKnight RF et al: Lithium toxicity profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 379(9817):721-8, 2012
                                                                      4. Slaughter A et al: MRI findings in chronic lithium nephropathy: a case report. J Radiol Case Rep. 4(8):15-21, 2010
                                                                      5. van Melick EJ et al: Renal effects of long-term lithium therapy in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 23(7):685-92, 2008
                                                                      6. Farres MT et al: Chronic lithium nephropathy: MR imaging for diagnosis. Radiology. 229(2):570-4, 2003
                                                                      7. Markowitz GS et al: Lithium nephrotoxicity: a progressive combined glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 11(8):1439-48, 2000
                                                                      8. Boton R et al: Prevalence, pathogenesis, and treatment of renal dysfunction associated with chronic lithium therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. 10(5):329-45, 1987