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Lymphoma of Bone
Behrang Amini, MD, PhD; B. J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone, primary lymphoma of bone (PLB), osteolymphoma
        • Definitions

          • Neoplasm composed of malignant lymphoid cells, producing ≥ 1 lesions within bone
          • PLB
            • ≥ 1 bone lesions with no supraregional lymph node involvement or other extranodal lesions
          • Secondary lymphoma of bone
            • Lymphoma with skeletal and nonskeletal involvement

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Cleven AHG et al: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone. In Fletcher CDM et al: WHO Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. IARC Press. 489-91, 2020
                                      2. Asenbaum U et al: Bone marrow involvement in malignant lymphoma: evaluation of quantitative PET and MRI biomarkers. Acad Radiol. 25(4):453-60, 2018
                                      3. Patyk M et al: Application of the apparent diffusion coefficient in magnetic resonance imaging in an assessment of the early response to treatment in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - pilot study. Pol J Radiol. 83:e210-4, 2018
                                      4. Milks KS et al: Imaging of primary pediatric lymphoma of bone. Pediatr Radiol. 46(8):1150-7, 2016
                                      5. Murphey MD et al: Primary musculoskeletal lymphoma. Radiol Clin North Am. 54(4):785-95, 2016
                                      6. Messina C et al: Primary and secondary bone lymphomas. Cancer Treat Rev. 41(3):235-46, 2015
                                      7. Liu YC et al: Prognostic factors and treatment efficacy in patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the bone: single institute experience over 11 years. Intern Med. 53(2):95-101, 2014
                                      8. Wu H et al: Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of bone lymphomas: focus on the clinical significance of multifocal bone involvement by primary bone large B-cell lymphomas. BMC Cancer. 14:900, 2014
                                      9. Wu H et al: Prognostic significance of soft tissue extension, international prognostic index, and multifocality in primary bone lymphoma: a single institutional experience. Br J Haematol. 166(1):60-8, 2014
                                      10. Demircay E et al: Malignant lymphoma of bone: a review of 119 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 471(8):2684-90, 2013
                                      11. Jiang XX et al: A pooled analysis of MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with malignant lymphoma. Clin Radiol. 68(3):e143-53, 2013
                                      12. Lim CY et al: Imaging of musculoskeletal lymphoma. Cancer Imaging. 13(4):448-57, 2013
                                      13. Thomas AG et al. Extranodal lymphoma from head to toe: part 2, the trunk and extremities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Aug;197(2):357-64, 2011
                                      14. Chua SC et al: Imaging features of primary extranodal lymphomas. Clin Radiol. 64(6):574-88, 2009
                                      15. Catlett JP et al: Primary lymphoma of bone: an institutional experience. Leuk Lymphoma. 49(11):2125-32, 2008
                                      16. Power DG et al: Primary bone lymphoma: single institution case series. Ir J Med Sci. 177(3):247-51, 2008
                                      17. Sato TS et al: Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child. Pediatr Radiol. 38(12):1338-41, 2008
                                      18. Ford DR et al: Primary bone lymphoma--treatment and outcome. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 19(1):50-5, 2007
                                      19. Heyning FH et al: MR imaging characteristics in primary lymphoma of bone with emphasis on non-aggressive appearance. Skeletal Radiol. 36(10):937-44, 2007
                                      20. Horsman JM et al: Primary bone lymphoma: a retrospective analysis. Int J Oncol. 28(6):1571-5, 2006
                                      21. Mengiardi B et al: Primary lymphoma of bone: MRI and CT characteristics during and after successful treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):185-92, 2005
                                      22. Krishnan A et al: Primary bone lymphoma: radiographic-MR imaging correlation. Radiographics. 23(6):1371-83; discussion 1384-7, 2003
                                      23. Rahmouni A et al: Bone marrow with diffuse tumor infiltration in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 229(3):710-7, 2003
                                      24. Mulligan ME et al: Imaging features of primary lymphoma of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(6):1691-7, 1999
                                      25. Melamed JW et al: Imaging of primary multifocal osseous lymphoma. Skeletal Radiol. 26(1):35-41, 1997
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone, primary lymphoma of bone (PLB), osteolymphoma
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Neoplasm composed of malignant lymphoid cells, producing ≥ 1 lesions within bone
                                              • PLB
                                                • ≥ 1 bone lesions with no supraregional lymph node involvement or other extranodal lesions
                                              • Secondary lymphoma of bone
                                                • Lymphoma with skeletal and nonskeletal involvement

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Cleven AHG et al: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone. In Fletcher CDM et al: WHO Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. IARC Press. 489-91, 2020
                                                                          2. Asenbaum U et al: Bone marrow involvement in malignant lymphoma: evaluation of quantitative PET and MRI biomarkers. Acad Radiol. 25(4):453-60, 2018
                                                                          3. Patyk M et al: Application of the apparent diffusion coefficient in magnetic resonance imaging in an assessment of the early response to treatment in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - pilot study. Pol J Radiol. 83:e210-4, 2018
                                                                          4. Milks KS et al: Imaging of primary pediatric lymphoma of bone. Pediatr Radiol. 46(8):1150-7, 2016
                                                                          5. Murphey MD et al: Primary musculoskeletal lymphoma. Radiol Clin North Am. 54(4):785-95, 2016
                                                                          6. Messina C et al: Primary and secondary bone lymphomas. Cancer Treat Rev. 41(3):235-46, 2015
                                                                          7. Liu YC et al: Prognostic factors and treatment efficacy in patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the bone: single institute experience over 11 years. Intern Med. 53(2):95-101, 2014
                                                                          8. Wu H et al: Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of bone lymphomas: focus on the clinical significance of multifocal bone involvement by primary bone large B-cell lymphomas. BMC Cancer. 14:900, 2014
                                                                          9. Wu H et al: Prognostic significance of soft tissue extension, international prognostic index, and multifocality in primary bone lymphoma: a single institutional experience. Br J Haematol. 166(1):60-8, 2014
                                                                          10. Demircay E et al: Malignant lymphoma of bone: a review of 119 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 471(8):2684-90, 2013
                                                                          11. Jiang XX et al: A pooled analysis of MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with malignant lymphoma. Clin Radiol. 68(3):e143-53, 2013
                                                                          12. Lim CY et al: Imaging of musculoskeletal lymphoma. Cancer Imaging. 13(4):448-57, 2013
                                                                          13. Thomas AG et al. Extranodal lymphoma from head to toe: part 2, the trunk and extremities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Aug;197(2):357-64, 2011
                                                                          14. Chua SC et al: Imaging features of primary extranodal lymphomas. Clin Radiol. 64(6):574-88, 2009
                                                                          15. Catlett JP et al: Primary lymphoma of bone: an institutional experience. Leuk Lymphoma. 49(11):2125-32, 2008
                                                                          16. Power DG et al: Primary bone lymphoma: single institution case series. Ir J Med Sci. 177(3):247-51, 2008
                                                                          17. Sato TS et al: Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child. Pediatr Radiol. 38(12):1338-41, 2008
                                                                          18. Ford DR et al: Primary bone lymphoma--treatment and outcome. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 19(1):50-5, 2007
                                                                          19. Heyning FH et al: MR imaging characteristics in primary lymphoma of bone with emphasis on non-aggressive appearance. Skeletal Radiol. 36(10):937-44, 2007
                                                                          20. Horsman JM et al: Primary bone lymphoma: a retrospective analysis. Int J Oncol. 28(6):1571-5, 2006
                                                                          21. Mengiardi B et al: Primary lymphoma of bone: MRI and CT characteristics during and after successful treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):185-92, 2005
                                                                          22. Krishnan A et al: Primary bone lymphoma: radiographic-MR imaging correlation. Radiographics. 23(6):1371-83; discussion 1384-7, 2003
                                                                          23. Rahmouni A et al: Bone marrow with diffuse tumor infiltration in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 229(3):710-7, 2003
                                                                          24. Mulligan ME et al: Imaging features of primary lymphoma of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(6):1691-7, 1999
                                                                          25. Melamed JW et al: Imaging of primary multifocal osseous lymphoma. Skeletal Radiol. 26(1):35-41, 1997