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Lytic and Blastic Metastases, Cervical Spine
Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Sclerotic metastases = blastic metastases
            • Definitions

              • Spread of malignancy to spine from primary site

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. De la Garza-Ramos R et al: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for cervical spine metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Spine Surg. 10:7, 2016
                                                2. Rosenberg E et al: Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report. Postgrad Med. 128(3):331-3, 2016
                                                3. Sampanis N et al: Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and osseous brown tumor: late manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed in a case of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 13(1):54-6, 2016
                                                4. Lee C et al: Epithelioid Sarcoma in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report. Korean J Spine. 12(3):165-8, 2015
                                                5. Xu R et al: Metastasis to the occipitocervical junction: A case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 1:16, 2010
                                                6. Fehlings MG et al: Decision making in the surgical treatment of cervical spine metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(22 Suppl):S108-17, 2009
                                                7. Guillevin R et al: Spine metastasis imaging: review of the literature. J Neuroradiol. 34(5):311-21, 2007
                                                8. Kubota T et al: High-resolution imaging of the spine using multidetector-row computed tomography: differentiation between benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29(5):712-9, 2005
                                                9. Tokuhashi Y et al: A revised scoring system for preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 30(19):2186-91, 2005
                                                10. Aebi M: Spinal metastasis in the elderly. Eur Spine J. 12 Suppl 2:S202-13, 2003
                                                11. Chang EL et al: Diagnosis and management of central nervous system metastases from breast cancer. Oncologist. 8(5):398-410, 2003
                                                12. Lipton A: Bone metastases in breast cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(2):151-8, 2003
                                                13. Bilsky MH et al: Diagnosis and management of a metastatic tumor in the atlantoaxial spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 27(10):1062-9, 2002
                                                14. Tomita K et al: Surgical strategy for spinal metastases. Spine. 26(3):298-306, 2001
                                                15. Castillo M et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging offers no advantage over routine noncontrast MR imaging in the detection of vertebral metastases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(5):948-53, 2000
                                                16. Murphy KJ et al: Percutaneous vertebroplasty in benign and malignant disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 10(3):535-45, 2000
                                                17. Wetzel FT et al: Management of metastatic disease of the spine. Orthop Clin North Am. 31(4):611-21, 2000
                                                18. Chamberlain MC et al: Epidural spinal cord compression: a single institution's retrospective experience. Neuro Oncol. 1(2):120-3, 1999
                                                19. Cook AM et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the whole spine in suspected malignant spinal cord compression: impact on management. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 10(1):39-43, 1998
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Sclerotic metastases = blastic metastases
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Spread of malignancy to spine from primary site

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. De la Garza-Ramos R et al: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for cervical spine metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Spine Surg. 10:7, 2016
                                                                                              2. Rosenberg E et al: Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report. Postgrad Med. 128(3):331-3, 2016
                                                                                              3. Sampanis N et al: Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and osseous brown tumor: late manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed in a case of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 13(1):54-6, 2016
                                                                                              4. Lee C et al: Epithelioid Sarcoma in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report. Korean J Spine. 12(3):165-8, 2015
                                                                                              5. Xu R et al: Metastasis to the occipitocervical junction: A case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 1:16, 2010
                                                                                              6. Fehlings MG et al: Decision making in the surgical treatment of cervical spine metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(22 Suppl):S108-17, 2009
                                                                                              7. Guillevin R et al: Spine metastasis imaging: review of the literature. J Neuroradiol. 34(5):311-21, 2007
                                                                                              8. Kubota T et al: High-resolution imaging of the spine using multidetector-row computed tomography: differentiation between benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29(5):712-9, 2005
                                                                                              9. Tokuhashi Y et al: A revised scoring system for preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 30(19):2186-91, 2005
                                                                                              10. Aebi M: Spinal metastasis in the elderly. Eur Spine J. 12 Suppl 2:S202-13, 2003
                                                                                              11. Chang EL et al: Diagnosis and management of central nervous system metastases from breast cancer. Oncologist. 8(5):398-410, 2003
                                                                                              12. Lipton A: Bone metastases in breast cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(2):151-8, 2003
                                                                                              13. Bilsky MH et al: Diagnosis and management of a metastatic tumor in the atlantoaxial spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 27(10):1062-9, 2002
                                                                                              14. Tomita K et al: Surgical strategy for spinal metastases. Spine. 26(3):298-306, 2001
                                                                                              15. Castillo M et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging offers no advantage over routine noncontrast MR imaging in the detection of vertebral metastases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(5):948-53, 2000
                                                                                              16. Murphy KJ et al: Percutaneous vertebroplasty in benign and malignant disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 10(3):535-45, 2000
                                                                                              17. Wetzel FT et al: Management of metastatic disease of the spine. Orthop Clin North Am. 31(4):611-21, 2000
                                                                                              18. Chamberlain MC et al: Epidural spinal cord compression: a single institution's retrospective experience. Neuro Oncol. 1(2):120-3, 1999
                                                                                              19. Cook AM et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the whole spine in suspected malignant spinal cord compression: impact on management. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 10(1):39-43, 1998