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Macrosomia
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Large for gestational age (LGA)
            • Definitions

              • Birth weight (BW) > 4,000 g or 4,500 g (or 10 lb)
                • American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology supports > 4,500 g because morbidity to mother and child sharply increases beyond this weight
              • LGA: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) or BW > 90th percentile
              • No international standard established
                • Country-specific population percentiles would be best

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Black MH et al: The relative contribution of prepregnancy overweight and obesity, gestational weight gain, and IADPSG-defined gestational diabetes mellitus to fetal overgrowth. Diabetes Care. 36(1):56-62, 2013
                                    2. Dennedy MC et al: Macrosomia: defining the problem worldwide. Lancet. 381(9865):435-6, 2013
                                    3. Bjørstad AR et al: Macrosomia: mode of delivery and pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 89(5):664-9, 2010
                                    4. Melamed N et al: Sonographic prediction of fetal macrosomia: the consequences of false diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med. 29(2):225-30, 2010
                                    5. Thorsell M et al: Large fetal size in early pregnancy associated with macrosomia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(4):390-4, 2010
                                    6. Culligan PJ et al: Elective cesarean section to prevent anal incontinence and brachial plexus injuries associated with macrosomia--a decision analysis. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 16(1):19-28; discussion 28, 2005
                                    7. Schaefer-Graf UM et al: Determinants of fetal growth at different periods of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 26(1):193-8, 2003
                                    8. Conway DL: Choosing route of delivery for the macrosomic infant of a diabetic mother: Cesarean section versus vaginal delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(6):442-8, 2002
                                    9. Gilby JR et al: Fetal abdominal circumference measurements of 35 and 38 cm as predictors of macrosomia. A risk factor for shoulder dystocia. J Reprod Med. 45(11):936-8, 2000
                                    10. Sokol RJ et al: Correctly identifying the macrosomic fetus: improving ultrasonography-based prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 182(6):1489-95, 2000
                                    11. Sohaey R et al: Idiopathic polyhydramnios: association with fetal macrosomia. Radiology. 190(2):393-6, 1994
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Large for gestational age (LGA)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Birth weight (BW) > 4,000 g or 4,500 g (or 10 lb)
                                                  • American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology supports > 4,500 g because morbidity to mother and child sharply increases beyond this weight
                                                • LGA: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) or BW > 90th percentile
                                                • No international standard established
                                                  • Country-specific population percentiles would be best

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Black MH et al: The relative contribution of prepregnancy overweight and obesity, gestational weight gain, and IADPSG-defined gestational diabetes mellitus to fetal overgrowth. Diabetes Care. 36(1):56-62, 2013
                                                                      2. Dennedy MC et al: Macrosomia: defining the problem worldwide. Lancet. 381(9865):435-6, 2013
                                                                      3. Bjørstad AR et al: Macrosomia: mode of delivery and pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 89(5):664-9, 2010
                                                                      4. Melamed N et al: Sonographic prediction of fetal macrosomia: the consequences of false diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med. 29(2):225-30, 2010
                                                                      5. Thorsell M et al: Large fetal size in early pregnancy associated with macrosomia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(4):390-4, 2010
                                                                      6. Culligan PJ et al: Elective cesarean section to prevent anal incontinence and brachial plexus injuries associated with macrosomia--a decision analysis. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 16(1):19-28; discussion 28, 2005
                                                                      7. Schaefer-Graf UM et al: Determinants of fetal growth at different periods of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 26(1):193-8, 2003
                                                                      8. Conway DL: Choosing route of delivery for the macrosomic infant of a diabetic mother: Cesarean section versus vaginal delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(6):442-8, 2002
                                                                      9. Gilby JR et al: Fetal abdominal circumference measurements of 35 and 38 cm as predictors of macrosomia. A risk factor for shoulder dystocia. J Reprod Med. 45(11):936-8, 2000
                                                                      10. Sokol RJ et al: Correctly identifying the macrosomic fetus: improving ultrasonography-based prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 182(6):1489-95, 2000
                                                                      11. Sohaey R et al: Idiopathic polyhydramnios: association with fetal macrosomia. Radiology. 190(2):393-6, 1994