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Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Regina J. Hooley, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Clinical Issues

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging
        • Definitions

          • Maximum-intensity projection (MIP): 3D display created from postcontrast subtraction images

        IMAGING

        • Indications

          • Contraindications

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Imaging Pitfalls

                • MR Spectroscopy

                  • MR Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

                    • Pharmacokinetic Modeling

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Patient Questionnaire

                        • Biopsy

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Consider

                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                              • Reporting Tips

                                Selected References

                                1. Deike-Hofmann K et al: Abbreviated MRI Protocols in Breast Cancer Diagnostics. J Magn Reson Imaging. 49(3):647-658, 2019
                                2. Bennani-Baiti B et al: MR Imaging for Diagnosis of Malignancy in Mammographic Microcalcifications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Radiology. 283(3):692-701, 2017
                                3. Houssami N et al: Meta-analysis of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical treatment for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 165(2):273-283, 2017
                                4. Berger N et al: Diagnostic performance of MRI versus galactography in women with pathologic nipple discharge: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(2):465-471, 2017
                                5. Chhor CM et al: Abbreviated MRI Protocols: Wave of the Future for Breast Cancer Screening. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(2):284-289, 2017
                                6. Kuhl CK et al: Supplemental breast MR imaging screening of women with average risk of breast cancer. Radiology. 283(2):361-370, 2017
                                7. Lam DL et al: Imaging surveillance after primary breast cancer treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(3):676-686, 2017
                                8. Morrison CK et al: Novel High Spatiotemporal Resolution Versus Standard-of-Care Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI: Comparison of Image Quality. Invest Radiol. 52(4):198-205, 2017
                                9. Bae MS et al: Early Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical-Pathologic Factors Associated with Recurrence. Radiology. 278(2):356-64, 2016
                                10. Lehman CD et al: Screening MRI in women with a personal history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 108(3), 2016
                                11. Narayan AK et al: Comparative effectiveness of breast MRI and mammography in screening young women with elevated risk of developing breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 158(3):583-9, 2016
                                12. Phi XA et al: Contribution of mammography to MRI screening in BRCA mutation carriers by BRCA status and age: individual patient data meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 114(6):631-7, 2016
                                13. Rahbar H et al: Multiparametric MR Imaging of Breast Cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 24(1):223-38, 2016
                                14. McDonald RJ et al: Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 275(3):772-82, 2015
                                15. Kuhl CK et al: Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI. J Clin Oncol. 32(22):2304-10, 2014
                                16. Spick C et al: Diagnostic utility of second-look US for breast lesions identified at MR imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiology. 273(2):401-9, 2014
                                17. Kim JY et al: Unilateral breast cancer: screening of contralateral breast by using preoperative MR imaging reduces incidence of metachronous cancer. Radiology. 267(1):57-66, 2013
                                18. Morris EA et al: Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BI-RADS: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reston: American College of Radiology, 2013
                                19. Bennett CL et al: Gadolinium-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the rise and fall of an iatrogenic disease. Clin Kidney J. 5(1):82-88, 2012
                                20. Mahoney MC et al: Positive predictive value of BI-RADS MR imaging. Radiology. 264(1):51-8, 2012
                                21. Parsian S et al: Nonmalignant breast lesions: ADCs of benign and high-risk subtypes assessed as false-positive at dynamic enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 265(3):696-706, 2012
                                22. Plana MN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative assessment of patients with primary breast cancer: systematic review of diagnostic accuracy and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 22:26-38, 2012
                                23. Berg WA et al: Breast cancer: comparative effectiveness of positron emission mammography and MR imaging in presurgical planning for the ipsilateral breast. Radiology. 258(1):59-72, 2011
                                24. Morrow M et al: MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet. 378(9805):1804-11, 2011
                                25. Berg WA: Tailored supplemental screening for breast cancer: what now and what next? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(2):390-9, 2009
                                26. Brennan ME et al: Magnetic resonance imaging screening of the contralateral breast in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of incremental cancer detection and impact on surgical management. J Clin Oncol. 27(33):5640-9, 2009
                                27. Ellis RL: Optimal timing of breast MRI examinations for premenopausal women who do not have a normal menstrual cycle. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(6):1738-40, 2009
                                28. Meissnitzer M et al: Targeted ultrasound of the breast in women with abnormal MRI findings for whom biopsy has been recommended. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):1025-9, 2009
                                29. Houssami N et al: Accuracy and surgical impact of magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer staging: systematic review and meta-analysis in detection of multifocal and multicentric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 26:3248-58, 2008
                                30. Harvey JA et al: Breast MR imaging artifacts: how to recognize and fix them. Radiographics. 27 Suppl 1:S131-45, 2007
                                31. Sickles, EA, D’Orsi CJ. ACR BI-RADS® Follow-up and Outcome Monitoring. In: ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Reston, VA, American College of Radiology; 2013.
                                Related Anatomy
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Imaging

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Abbreviations

                                        • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Maximum-intensity projection (MIP): 3D display created from postcontrast subtraction images

                                      IMAGING

                                      • Indications

                                        • Contraindications

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            • Imaging Pitfalls

                                              • MR Spectroscopy

                                                • MR Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

                                                  • Pharmacokinetic Modeling

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Patient Questionnaire

                                                      • Biopsy

                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                        • Consider

                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Deike-Hofmann K et al: Abbreviated MRI Protocols in Breast Cancer Diagnostics. J Magn Reson Imaging. 49(3):647-658, 2019
                                                              2. Bennani-Baiti B et al: MR Imaging for Diagnosis of Malignancy in Mammographic Microcalcifications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Radiology. 283(3):692-701, 2017
                                                              3. Houssami N et al: Meta-analysis of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical treatment for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 165(2):273-283, 2017
                                                              4. Berger N et al: Diagnostic performance of MRI versus galactography in women with pathologic nipple discharge: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(2):465-471, 2017
                                                              5. Chhor CM et al: Abbreviated MRI Protocols: Wave of the Future for Breast Cancer Screening. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(2):284-289, 2017
                                                              6. Kuhl CK et al: Supplemental breast MR imaging screening of women with average risk of breast cancer. Radiology. 283(2):361-370, 2017
                                                              7. Lam DL et al: Imaging surveillance after primary breast cancer treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(3):676-686, 2017
                                                              8. Morrison CK et al: Novel High Spatiotemporal Resolution Versus Standard-of-Care Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI: Comparison of Image Quality. Invest Radiol. 52(4):198-205, 2017
                                                              9. Bae MS et al: Early Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical-Pathologic Factors Associated with Recurrence. Radiology. 278(2):356-64, 2016
                                                              10. Lehman CD et al: Screening MRI in women with a personal history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 108(3), 2016
                                                              11. Narayan AK et al: Comparative effectiveness of breast MRI and mammography in screening young women with elevated risk of developing breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 158(3):583-9, 2016
                                                              12. Phi XA et al: Contribution of mammography to MRI screening in BRCA mutation carriers by BRCA status and age: individual patient data meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 114(6):631-7, 2016
                                                              13. Rahbar H et al: Multiparametric MR Imaging of Breast Cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 24(1):223-38, 2016
                                                              14. McDonald RJ et al: Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 275(3):772-82, 2015
                                                              15. Kuhl CK et al: Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI. J Clin Oncol. 32(22):2304-10, 2014
                                                              16. Spick C et al: Diagnostic utility of second-look US for breast lesions identified at MR imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiology. 273(2):401-9, 2014
                                                              17. Kim JY et al: Unilateral breast cancer: screening of contralateral breast by using preoperative MR imaging reduces incidence of metachronous cancer. Radiology. 267(1):57-66, 2013
                                                              18. Morris EA et al: Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BI-RADS: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reston: American College of Radiology, 2013
                                                              19. Bennett CL et al: Gadolinium-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the rise and fall of an iatrogenic disease. Clin Kidney J. 5(1):82-88, 2012
                                                              20. Mahoney MC et al: Positive predictive value of BI-RADS MR imaging. Radiology. 264(1):51-8, 2012
                                                              21. Parsian S et al: Nonmalignant breast lesions: ADCs of benign and high-risk subtypes assessed as false-positive at dynamic enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 265(3):696-706, 2012
                                                              22. Plana MN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative assessment of patients with primary breast cancer: systematic review of diagnostic accuracy and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 22:26-38, 2012
                                                              23. Berg WA et al: Breast cancer: comparative effectiveness of positron emission mammography and MR imaging in presurgical planning for the ipsilateral breast. Radiology. 258(1):59-72, 2011
                                                              24. Morrow M et al: MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet. 378(9805):1804-11, 2011
                                                              25. Berg WA: Tailored supplemental screening for breast cancer: what now and what next? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(2):390-9, 2009
                                                              26. Brennan ME et al: Magnetic resonance imaging screening of the contralateral breast in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of incremental cancer detection and impact on surgical management. J Clin Oncol. 27(33):5640-9, 2009
                                                              27. Ellis RL: Optimal timing of breast MRI examinations for premenopausal women who do not have a normal menstrual cycle. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(6):1738-40, 2009
                                                              28. Meissnitzer M et al: Targeted ultrasound of the breast in women with abnormal MRI findings for whom biopsy has been recommended. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):1025-9, 2009
                                                              29. Houssami N et al: Accuracy and surgical impact of magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer staging: systematic review and meta-analysis in detection of multifocal and multicentric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 26:3248-58, 2008
                                                              30. Harvey JA et al: Breast MR imaging artifacts: how to recognize and fix them. Radiographics. 27 Suppl 1:S131-45, 2007
                                                              31. Sickles, EA, D’Orsi CJ. ACR BI-RADS® Follow-up and Outcome Monitoring. In: ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Reston, VA, American College of Radiology; 2013.