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Malakoplakia
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Amir A. Borhani, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Malacoplakia
              • Definitions

                • Greek for "soft plaque"
                • Rare chronic granulomatous disease; thought to be due to altered host response and defective phagocytosis

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Parkin CJ et al: Malakoplakia, a malignant mimic. Bladder (San Franc). 7(3):e44, 2020
                                            2. Rezaee ME et al: Mischievous malakoplakia: a potential pitfall of mpMRI of the prostate? Urol Case Rep. 32:101222, 2020
                                            3. Rabani SMR et al: Bladder malakoplakia simulating neoplasm in a young girl: report of a case and review of literature. Urol J. 16(6):614-5, 2019
                                            4. Ayari Y et al: Renal malakoplakia mimicking a locally advanced renal mass: a case report. Urol Case Rep. 17:117-8, 2018
                                            5. Kang HJ et al: Multiple extensive malacoplakia mimicking metastatic carcinoma. Australas J Dermatol. 59(4):e279-80, 2018
                                            6. Velasquez MC et al: Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed on multiparametric-MRI ultrasound fusion guided biopsy: a case report and review of the literature. Urol Case Rep. 18:94-6, 2018
                                            7. Morgan TA et al: Testicular malakoplakia: a rare sonographic mimic of malignancy. J Clin Ultrasound. 43(3):199-202, 2015
                                            8. Stamatiou K et al: Renal failure caused by malakoplakia lesions of the urinary bladder. Nephrourol Mon. 6(4):e18522, 2014
                                            9. Sanchez LM et al: Malacoplakia presenting with obstructive nephropathy with bilateral ureter involvement. Nat Rev Nephrol. 5(7):418-22, 2009
                                            10. Wang J et al: Transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract vs. benign lesions: distinctive MSCT features. Abdom Imaging. 34(1):94-106, 2009
                                            11. Wong-You-Cheong JJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(6):1847-68, 2006
                                            12. Steele B et al: Sonographic appearance of bladder malacoplakia. Pediatr Radiol. 33(4):253-5, 2003
                                            13. Gumus E et al: Extensive bilateral renal pelvis, ureter and bladder leukoplakia. Int J Urol. 9(11):653-5, 2002
                                            14. Baumgartner BR et al: Malakoplakia of the ureter and bladder. Urol Radiol. 12(3):157-9, 1990
                                            15. Long JP Jr et al: Malacoplakia: a 25-year experience with a review of the literature. J Urol. 141(6):1328-31, 1989
                                            16. Bidwell JK et al: Computed tomography of bladder malakoplakia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 11(5):909-10, 1987
                                            17. Curran FT: Malakoplakia of the bladder. Br J Urol. 59(6):559-63, 1987
                                            18. Arap S et al: Malakoplakia of the urinary tract. Eur Urol. 12(2):113-6, 1986
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Malacoplakia
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Greek for "soft plaque"
                                                          • Rare chronic granulomatous disease; thought to be due to altered host response and defective phagocytosis

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Parkin CJ et al: Malakoplakia, a malignant mimic. Bladder (San Franc). 7(3):e44, 2020
                                                                                      2. Rezaee ME et al: Mischievous malakoplakia: a potential pitfall of mpMRI of the prostate? Urol Case Rep. 32:101222, 2020
                                                                                      3. Rabani SMR et al: Bladder malakoplakia simulating neoplasm in a young girl: report of a case and review of literature. Urol J. 16(6):614-5, 2019
                                                                                      4. Ayari Y et al: Renal malakoplakia mimicking a locally advanced renal mass: a case report. Urol Case Rep. 17:117-8, 2018
                                                                                      5. Kang HJ et al: Multiple extensive malacoplakia mimicking metastatic carcinoma. Australas J Dermatol. 59(4):e279-80, 2018
                                                                                      6. Velasquez MC et al: Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed on multiparametric-MRI ultrasound fusion guided biopsy: a case report and review of the literature. Urol Case Rep. 18:94-6, 2018
                                                                                      7. Morgan TA et al: Testicular malakoplakia: a rare sonographic mimic of malignancy. J Clin Ultrasound. 43(3):199-202, 2015
                                                                                      8. Stamatiou K et al: Renal failure caused by malakoplakia lesions of the urinary bladder. Nephrourol Mon. 6(4):e18522, 2014
                                                                                      9. Sanchez LM et al: Malacoplakia presenting with obstructive nephropathy with bilateral ureter involvement. Nat Rev Nephrol. 5(7):418-22, 2009
                                                                                      10. Wang J et al: Transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract vs. benign lesions: distinctive MSCT features. Abdom Imaging. 34(1):94-106, 2009
                                                                                      11. Wong-You-Cheong JJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(6):1847-68, 2006
                                                                                      12. Steele B et al: Sonographic appearance of bladder malacoplakia. Pediatr Radiol. 33(4):253-5, 2003
                                                                                      13. Gumus E et al: Extensive bilateral renal pelvis, ureter and bladder leukoplakia. Int J Urol. 9(11):653-5, 2002
                                                                                      14. Baumgartner BR et al: Malakoplakia of the ureter and bladder. Urol Radiol. 12(3):157-9, 1990
                                                                                      15. Long JP Jr et al: Malacoplakia: a 25-year experience with a review of the literature. J Urol. 141(6):1328-31, 1989
                                                                                      16. Bidwell JK et al: Computed tomography of bladder malakoplakia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 11(5):909-10, 1987
                                                                                      17. Curran FT: Malakoplakia of the bladder. Br J Urol. 59(6):559-63, 1987
                                                                                      18. Arap S et al: Malakoplakia of the urinary tract. Eur Urol. 12(2):113-6, 1986