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Mandible-Maxilla Osteomyelitis
Philip R. Chapman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Acute or chronic suppurative osteomyelitis
          • Definitions

            • Polymicrobial bacterial infection, usually odontogenic, of mandible > maxilla

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Gaêta-Araujo H et al: Osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, or medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws? Can CBCT enhance radiographic diagnosis? Oral Dis. 27(2):312-9, 2021
                                          2. Modabber A et al: Evaluation of SPECT/CT in the assessment of inflammatory jaw pathologies. Eur J Radiol. 125:108917, 2020
                                          3. Shin JW et al: Computed tomography imaging features of osteomyelitis of the jaw: comparison between antiresorptive medication-related conditions and medication-unrelated conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 129(6):629-34, 2020
                                          4. Matharu J et al: Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis: a case series and literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 129(5):437-46, 2019
                                          5. van de Meent MM et al: Non-surgical treatment of adults with chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis/tendoperiostitis of the mandible. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 47(12):1922-8, 2019
                                          6. Haeffs TH et al: Acute and chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the jaws: a 10-year review and assessment of treatment outcome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 76(12):2551-8, 2018
                                          7. Mardini S et al: Imaging of odontogenic infections. Radiol Clin North Am. 56(1):31-44, 2018
                                          8. Dym H et al: Microbiology of acute and chronic osteomyelitis and antibiotic treatment. Dent Clin North Am. 61(2):271-82, 2017
                                          9. Julien Saint Amand M et al: Chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible: A comparative study of 10 cases with primary chronic osteomyelitis and 12 cases with secondary chronic osteomyelitis. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 118(6):342-348, 2017
                                          10. Padwa BL et al: Pediatric Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis of the Jaw: Clinical, Radiographic, and Histopathologic Features. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. ePub, 2016
                                          11. Thayil N et al: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Head and Neck Infections. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 24(2):345-67, 2016
                                          12. De Ceulaer J et al: Actinomyces osteomyelitis in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ): the missing link? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 33(11):1873-80, 2014
                                          13. Sasaki Y et al: Actinomycosis in the mandible: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(2):390-4, 2014
                                          14. Valour F et al: Actinomycosis: etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and management. Infect Drug Resist. 7:183-97, 2014
                                          15. Fukumitsu N et al: What can be identified by three-phase bone scintigraphy in patients with chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible? Ann Nucl Med. 24(4):287-93, 2010
                                          16. Tanaka R et al: Computed tomography findings of chronic osteomyelitis involving the mandible: correlation to histopathological findings. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 37(2):94-103, 2008
                                          17. Ida M et al: CT findings as a significant predictive factor for the curability of mandibular osteomyelitis: multivariate analysis. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 34(2):86-90, 2005
                                          18. Oostman O et al: Cervicofacial Actinomycosis: Diagnosis and Management. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 7(3):170-174, 2005
                                          19. Schuknecht B et al: Osteomyelitis of the mandible. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(3):605-18, 2003
                                          20. Lerner PI: The lumpy jaw. Cervicofacial actinomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2(1):203-20, 1988
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Acute or chronic suppurative osteomyelitis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Polymicrobial bacterial infection, usually odontogenic, of mandible > maxilla

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Gaêta-Araujo H et al: Osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, or medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws? Can CBCT enhance radiographic diagnosis? Oral Dis. 27(2):312-9, 2021
                                                                                  2. Modabber A et al: Evaluation of SPECT/CT in the assessment of inflammatory jaw pathologies. Eur J Radiol. 125:108917, 2020
                                                                                  3. Shin JW et al: Computed tomography imaging features of osteomyelitis of the jaw: comparison between antiresorptive medication-related conditions and medication-unrelated conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 129(6):629-34, 2020
                                                                                  4. Matharu J et al: Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis: a case series and literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 129(5):437-46, 2019
                                                                                  5. van de Meent MM et al: Non-surgical treatment of adults with chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis/tendoperiostitis of the mandible. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 47(12):1922-8, 2019
                                                                                  6. Haeffs TH et al: Acute and chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the jaws: a 10-year review and assessment of treatment outcome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 76(12):2551-8, 2018
                                                                                  7. Mardini S et al: Imaging of odontogenic infections. Radiol Clin North Am. 56(1):31-44, 2018
                                                                                  8. Dym H et al: Microbiology of acute and chronic osteomyelitis and antibiotic treatment. Dent Clin North Am. 61(2):271-82, 2017
                                                                                  9. Julien Saint Amand M et al: Chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible: A comparative study of 10 cases with primary chronic osteomyelitis and 12 cases with secondary chronic osteomyelitis. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 118(6):342-348, 2017
                                                                                  10. Padwa BL et al: Pediatric Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis of the Jaw: Clinical, Radiographic, and Histopathologic Features. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. ePub, 2016
                                                                                  11. Thayil N et al: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Head and Neck Infections. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 24(2):345-67, 2016
                                                                                  12. De Ceulaer J et al: Actinomyces osteomyelitis in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ): the missing link? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 33(11):1873-80, 2014
                                                                                  13. Sasaki Y et al: Actinomycosis in the mandible: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(2):390-4, 2014
                                                                                  14. Valour F et al: Actinomycosis: etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and management. Infect Drug Resist. 7:183-97, 2014
                                                                                  15. Fukumitsu N et al: What can be identified by three-phase bone scintigraphy in patients with chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible? Ann Nucl Med. 24(4):287-93, 2010
                                                                                  16. Tanaka R et al: Computed tomography findings of chronic osteomyelitis involving the mandible: correlation to histopathological findings. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 37(2):94-103, 2008
                                                                                  17. Ida M et al: CT findings as a significant predictive factor for the curability of mandibular osteomyelitis: multivariate analysis. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 34(2):86-90, 2005
                                                                                  18. Oostman O et al: Cervicofacial Actinomycosis: Diagnosis and Management. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 7(3):170-174, 2005
                                                                                  19. Schuknecht B et al: Osteomyelitis of the mandible. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(3):605-18, 2003
                                                                                  20. Lerner PI: The lumpy jaw. Cervicofacial actinomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2(1):203-20, 1988