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Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
            • Definitions

              • Respiratory distress in setting of aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid
                • MAS causes ↓ lung compliance & hypoxia ± pulmonary hypertension & air leak syndrome
                • Severe MAS: Requires mechanical ventilation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Hiersch L et al: Effect of meconium-stained amniotic fluid on perinatal complications in low-risk pregnancies at term. Am J Perinatol. 33(4):378-84, 2016
                                      2. Natarajan CK et al: Surfactant therapy and antibiotics in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Perinatol. 36 Suppl 1:S49-54, 2016
                                      3. Rodríguez-Fanjul J et al: Lung ultrasound as a predictor of mechanical ventilation in neonates older than 32 weeks. Neonatology. 110(3):198-203, 2016
                                      4. Lindenskov PH et al: Meconium aspiration syndrome: possible pathophysiological mechanisms and future potential therapies. Neonatology. 107(3):225-30, 2015
                                      5. Duong HH et al: Pneumothorax in neonates: Trends, predictors and outcomes. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 7(1):29-38, 2014
                                      6. Hutton EK et al: Consequences of meconium stained amniotic fluid: what does the evidence tell us? Early Hum Dev. 90(7):333-9, 2014
                                      7. Piastra M et al: Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome. Early Hum Dev. 90 Suppl 2:S41-3, 2014
                                      8. Reuter S et al: Respiratory distress in the newborn. Pediatr Rev. 35(10):417-28; quiz 429, 2014
                                      9. Hofer N et al: Meconium aspiration syndrome--a 21-years' experience from a tertiary care center and analysis of risk factors for predicting disease severity. Klin Padiatr. 225(7):383-8, 2013
                                      10. Mundhra R et al: Fetal outcome in meconium stained deliveries. J Clin Diagn Res. 7(12):2874-6, 2013
                                      11. Fischer C et al: A population-based study of meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates born between 37 and 43 weeks of gestation. Int J Pediatr. 2012:321545, 2012
                                      12. Szczapa T et al: Use of heliox in the management of neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome. Neonatology. 100(3):265-70, 2011
                                      13. Vasireddy S et al: MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn. Pediatr Radiol. 39(1):73-6, 2009
                                      14. Gelfand SL et al: Meconium stained fluid: approach to the mother and the baby. Pediatr Clin North Am. 51(3):655-67, ix, 2004
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Respiratory distress in setting of aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid
                                                    • MAS causes ↓ lung compliance & hypoxia ± pulmonary hypertension & air leak syndrome
                                                    • Severe MAS: Requires mechanical ventilation

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Hiersch L et al: Effect of meconium-stained amniotic fluid on perinatal complications in low-risk pregnancies at term. Am J Perinatol. 33(4):378-84, 2016
                                                                          2. Natarajan CK et al: Surfactant therapy and antibiotics in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Perinatol. 36 Suppl 1:S49-54, 2016
                                                                          3. Rodríguez-Fanjul J et al: Lung ultrasound as a predictor of mechanical ventilation in neonates older than 32 weeks. Neonatology. 110(3):198-203, 2016
                                                                          4. Lindenskov PH et al: Meconium aspiration syndrome: possible pathophysiological mechanisms and future potential therapies. Neonatology. 107(3):225-30, 2015
                                                                          5. Duong HH et al: Pneumothorax in neonates: Trends, predictors and outcomes. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 7(1):29-38, 2014
                                                                          6. Hutton EK et al: Consequences of meconium stained amniotic fluid: what does the evidence tell us? Early Hum Dev. 90(7):333-9, 2014
                                                                          7. Piastra M et al: Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome. Early Hum Dev. 90 Suppl 2:S41-3, 2014
                                                                          8. Reuter S et al: Respiratory distress in the newborn. Pediatr Rev. 35(10):417-28; quiz 429, 2014
                                                                          9. Hofer N et al: Meconium aspiration syndrome--a 21-years' experience from a tertiary care center and analysis of risk factors for predicting disease severity. Klin Padiatr. 225(7):383-8, 2013
                                                                          10. Mundhra R et al: Fetal outcome in meconium stained deliveries. J Clin Diagn Res. 7(12):2874-6, 2013
                                                                          11. Fischer C et al: A population-based study of meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates born between 37 and 43 weeks of gestation. Int J Pediatr. 2012:321545, 2012
                                                                          12. Szczapa T et al: Use of heliox in the management of neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome. Neonatology. 100(3):265-70, 2011
                                                                          13. Vasireddy S et al: MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn. Pediatr Radiol. 39(1):73-6, 2009
                                                                          14. Gelfand SL et al: Meconium stained fluid: approach to the mother and the baby. Pediatr Clin North Am. 51(3):655-67, ix, 2004