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Mediastinal Seminoma
Aletta Ann Frazier, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Old terminology: Germinoma, dysgerminoma
              • Definitions

                • Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell neoplasm (MGCN)
                  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) typically develop in midline structures
                  • Seminoma second MGCN in frequency, after teratoma

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Garrana SH et al: Imaging of the anterior/prevascular mediastinum. Radiol Clin North Am. 59(2):155-68, 2021
                                            2. Prosch H et al: The role of radiological imaging for masses in the prevascular mediastinum in clinical practice. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7591-7, 2020
                                            3. Yajima T et al: Advantages of additional PET vs. MRI in the clinical diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors. Mol Clin Oncol. 13(6):85, 2020
                                            4. Magudia K et al: Unusual imaging findings associated with germ cell tumors. Radiographics. 39(4):1019-35, 2019
                                            5. Rosti G et al: Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol. 46(2):107-11, 2019
                                            6. Burke A et al: Seminoma. In Practical Thoracic Pathology: Diseases of the Lung, Heart & Thymus. 1st ed. Wolters Kluwer. 521-3, 2017
                                            7. Weissferdt A et al: Primary mediastinal seminomas: a comprehensive immunohistochemical study with a focus on novel markers. Hum Pathol. 46(3):376-83, 2015
                                            8. Carter BW et al: Approaching the patient with an anterior mediastinal mass: a guide for clinicians. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S102-9, 2014
                                            9. Carter BW et al: Approaching the patient with an anterior mediastinal mass: a guide for radiologists. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S110-8, 2014
                                            10. Liu Y et al: Management of the primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: experience with 54 patients. Diagn Pathol. 9:33, 2014
                                            11. Weissferdt A et al: Primary mediastinal "thymic" seminomas. Adv Anat Pathol. 19(2):75-80, 2012
                                            12. Rodney AJ et al: Survival outcomes for men with mediastinal germ-cell tumors: The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Urol Oncol. 30(6):879-85, 2010
                                            13. Strollo DC et al: Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell neoplasms: imaging features. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 12(4):645-58, 2002
                                            14. Rosado-de-Christenson ML et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Mediastinal germ cell tumors: radiologic and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(5):1013-30, 1992
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Old terminology: Germinoma, dysgerminoma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell neoplasm (MGCN)
                                                            • Extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) typically develop in midline structures
                                                            • Seminoma second MGCN in frequency, after teratoma

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Garrana SH et al: Imaging of the anterior/prevascular mediastinum. Radiol Clin North Am. 59(2):155-68, 2021
                                                                                      2. Prosch H et al: The role of radiological imaging for masses in the prevascular mediastinum in clinical practice. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7591-7, 2020
                                                                                      3. Yajima T et al: Advantages of additional PET vs. MRI in the clinical diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors. Mol Clin Oncol. 13(6):85, 2020
                                                                                      4. Magudia K et al: Unusual imaging findings associated with germ cell tumors. Radiographics. 39(4):1019-35, 2019
                                                                                      5. Rosti G et al: Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol. 46(2):107-11, 2019
                                                                                      6. Burke A et al: Seminoma. In Practical Thoracic Pathology: Diseases of the Lung, Heart & Thymus. 1st ed. Wolters Kluwer. 521-3, 2017
                                                                                      7. Weissferdt A et al: Primary mediastinal seminomas: a comprehensive immunohistochemical study with a focus on novel markers. Hum Pathol. 46(3):376-83, 2015
                                                                                      8. Carter BW et al: Approaching the patient with an anterior mediastinal mass: a guide for clinicians. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S102-9, 2014
                                                                                      9. Carter BW et al: Approaching the patient with an anterior mediastinal mass: a guide for radiologists. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S110-8, 2014
                                                                                      10. Liu Y et al: Management of the primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: experience with 54 patients. Diagn Pathol. 9:33, 2014
                                                                                      11. Weissferdt A et al: Primary mediastinal "thymic" seminomas. Adv Anat Pathol. 19(2):75-80, 2012
                                                                                      12. Rodney AJ et al: Survival outcomes for men with mediastinal germ-cell tumors: The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Urol Oncol. 30(6):879-85, 2010
                                                                                      13. Strollo DC et al: Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell neoplasms: imaging features. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 12(4):645-58, 2002
                                                                                      14. Rosado-de-Christenson ML et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Mediastinal germ cell tumors: radiologic and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(5):1013-30, 1992