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Mediastinitis
Claudio Silva, MD, MSc, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Acute descending necrotizing mediastinitis (ADNM)
              • Definitions

                • Acute mediastinitis: Potentially life-threatening focal or diffuse mediastinal inflammation usually caused by infection

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • Fluoroscopic Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • MR Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Norton-Gregory AA et al: CT esophagography for evaluation of esophageal perforation. Radiographics. 41(2):447-61, 2021
                                              2. Siciliano RF et al: Derivation and validation of an early diagnostic score for mediastinitis after cardiothoracic surgery. Int J Infect Dis. 90:201-5, 2020
                                              3. Cunqueiro A et al: CT of the neck: image analysis and reporting in the emergency setting. Radiographics. 39(6):1760-81, 2019
                                              4. Foldyna B et al: Computed tomography improves the differentiation of infectious mediastinitis from normal postoperative changes after sternotomy in cardiac surgery. Eur Radiol. 29(6):49-2957, 2019
                                              5. Katabathina VS et al: Nonvascular, nontraumatic mediastinal emergencies in adults: a comprehensive review of imaging findings. Radiographics. 31(4):1141-60, 2011
                                              6. Athanassiadi KA: Infections of the mediastinum. Thorac Surg Clin. 19(1):37-45, vi, 2009
                                              7. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging appearances of the sternum and sternoclavicular joints. Radiographics. 29(3):839-59, 2009
                                              8. Pinto A et al: Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography. Eur J Radiol. 65(3):389-94, 2008
                                              9. Exarhos DN et al: Acute mediastinitis: spectrum of computed tomography findings. Eur Radiol. 15(8):1569-74, 2005
                                              10. Akman C et al: Imaging in mediastinitis: a systematic review based on aetiology. Clin Radiol. 59(7):573-85, 2004
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Acute descending necrotizing mediastinitis (ADNM)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Acute mediastinitis: Potentially life-threatening focal or diffuse mediastinal inflammation usually caused by infection

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Norton-Gregory AA et al: CT esophagography for evaluation of esophageal perforation. Radiographics. 41(2):447-61, 2021
                                                                                          2. Siciliano RF et al: Derivation and validation of an early diagnostic score for mediastinitis after cardiothoracic surgery. Int J Infect Dis. 90:201-5, 2020
                                                                                          3. Cunqueiro A et al: CT of the neck: image analysis and reporting in the emergency setting. Radiographics. 39(6):1760-81, 2019
                                                                                          4. Foldyna B et al: Computed tomography improves the differentiation of infectious mediastinitis from normal postoperative changes after sternotomy in cardiac surgery. Eur Radiol. 29(6):49-2957, 2019
                                                                                          5. Katabathina VS et al: Nonvascular, nontraumatic mediastinal emergencies in adults: a comprehensive review of imaging findings. Radiographics. 31(4):1141-60, 2011
                                                                                          6. Athanassiadi KA: Infections of the mediastinum. Thorac Surg Clin. 19(1):37-45, vi, 2009
                                                                                          7. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging appearances of the sternum and sternoclavicular joints. Radiographics. 29(3):839-59, 2009
                                                                                          8. Pinto A et al: Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography. Eur J Radiol. 65(3):389-94, 2008
                                                                                          9. Exarhos DN et al: Acute mediastinitis: spectrum of computed tomography findings. Eur Radiol. 15(8):1569-74, 2005
                                                                                          10. Akman C et al: Imaging in mediastinitis: a systematic review based on aetiology. Clin Radiol. 59(7):573-85, 2004