link
Bookmarks
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
1
7
7
7

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTCa)
            • Synonyms

              • Thyroid neuroendocrine carcinoma
            • Definitions

              • Rare neuroendocrine malignancy arising from thyroid parafollicular C cells that produce calcitonin
              • Inherited forms of MTCa
                • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes
                • Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Delorme S et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: imaging. Recent Results Cancer Res. 204:91-116, 2015
                                                2. Ha EJ et al: The Role of Core Needle Biopsy and Its Impact on Surgical Management in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Clinical Experience at 3 Medical Institutions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(8):1512-7, 2015
                                                3. Salaun PY et al: ¹⁸F-FDG PET predicts survival after pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 41(8):1501-10, 2014
                                                4. Ganeshan D et al: Current update on medullary thyroid carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(6):W867-76, 2013
                                                5. Monpeyssen H et al: Elastography of the thyroid. Diagn Interv Imaging. 94(5):535-44, 2013
                                                6. Heston TF et al: Molecular imaging in thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging. 10(1):1-7, 2010
                                                7. Lee S et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinoma and application of current sonographic criteria. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(4):1090-4, 2010
                                                8. Allen SM et al: Diagnostic and surgical dilemmas in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 119(7):1303-11, 2009
                                                9. American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force et al: Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2009 Jun;19(6):565-612. Review. Erratum in: Thyroid. 19(11):1295, 2009
                                                10. Higgins MJ et al: New directions in the systemic treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 23(9):768-75, 2009
                                                11. Moo-Young TA et al: Sporadic and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma: state of the art. Surg Clin North Am. 89(5):1193-204, 2009
                                                12. van Veelen W et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma and biomarkers: past, present and future. J Intern Med. 266(1):126-40, 2009
                                                13. Ahn JE et al: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer. World J Surg. 32(7):1552-8, 2008
                                                14. Bustillo A et al: Octreotide scintigraphy in the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 114(3):434-40, 2004
                                                15. Machens A et al: Prediction of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Surg. 91(6):709-12, 2004
                                                16. Massoll N et al: Diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Lab Med. 24(1):49-83, 2004
                                                17. Clayman GL et al: Medullary thyroid cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 36(1):91-105, 2003
                                                18. Cohen MS et al: Surgical treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Intern Med. 253(6):616-26, 2003
                                                19. Crippa F et al: FDG-PET in thyroid cancer. Tumori. 89(5):540-3, 2003
                                                20. Kouvaraki MA et al: Role of preoperative ultrasonography in the surgical management of patients with thyroid cancer. Surgery. 134(6):946-54; discussion 954-5, 2003
                                                21. Moley JF: Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(4):339-47, 2003
                                                22. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003
                                                23. Yen TW et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: results of a standardized surgical approach in a contemporary series of 80 consecutive patients. Surgery. 134(6):890-9; discussion 899-901, 2003
                                                24. Szakall S Jr et al: 18F-FDG PET detection of lymph node metastases in medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Nucl Med. 43(1):66-71, 2002
                                                25. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                                                26. Hansford JR et al: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and RET: from neoplasia to neurogenesis. J Med Genet. 37(11):817-27, 2000
                                                27. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                                28. Dorr U et al: The contribution of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy to the diagnosis of recurrent medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Semin Oncol. 21(5 Suppl 13):42-5, 1994
                                                Related Anatomy
                                                Loading...
                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
                                                Loading...
                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTCa)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Thyroid neuroendocrine carcinoma
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Rare neuroendocrine malignancy arising from thyroid parafollicular C cells that produce calcitonin
                                                            • Inherited forms of MTCa
                                                              • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes
                                                              • Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC)

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Delorme S et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: imaging. Recent Results Cancer Res. 204:91-116, 2015
                                                                                              2. Ha EJ et al: The Role of Core Needle Biopsy and Its Impact on Surgical Management in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Clinical Experience at 3 Medical Institutions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(8):1512-7, 2015
                                                                                              3. Salaun PY et al: ¹⁸F-FDG PET predicts survival after pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 41(8):1501-10, 2014
                                                                                              4. Ganeshan D et al: Current update on medullary thyroid carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(6):W867-76, 2013
                                                                                              5. Monpeyssen H et al: Elastography of the thyroid. Diagn Interv Imaging. 94(5):535-44, 2013
                                                                                              6. Heston TF et al: Molecular imaging in thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging. 10(1):1-7, 2010
                                                                                              7. Lee S et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinoma and application of current sonographic criteria. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(4):1090-4, 2010
                                                                                              8. Allen SM et al: Diagnostic and surgical dilemmas in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 119(7):1303-11, 2009
                                                                                              9. American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force et al: Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2009 Jun;19(6):565-612. Review. Erratum in: Thyroid. 19(11):1295, 2009
                                                                                              10. Higgins MJ et al: New directions in the systemic treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 23(9):768-75, 2009
                                                                                              11. Moo-Young TA et al: Sporadic and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma: state of the art. Surg Clin North Am. 89(5):1193-204, 2009
                                                                                              12. van Veelen W et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma and biomarkers: past, present and future. J Intern Med. 266(1):126-40, 2009
                                                                                              13. Ahn JE et al: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer. World J Surg. 32(7):1552-8, 2008
                                                                                              14. Bustillo A et al: Octreotide scintigraphy in the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 114(3):434-40, 2004
                                                                                              15. Machens A et al: Prediction of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Surg. 91(6):709-12, 2004
                                                                                              16. Massoll N et al: Diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Lab Med. 24(1):49-83, 2004
                                                                                              17. Clayman GL et al: Medullary thyroid cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 36(1):91-105, 2003
                                                                                              18. Cohen MS et al: Surgical treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Intern Med. 253(6):616-26, 2003
                                                                                              19. Crippa F et al: FDG-PET in thyroid cancer. Tumori. 89(5):540-3, 2003
                                                                                              20. Kouvaraki MA et al: Role of preoperative ultrasonography in the surgical management of patients with thyroid cancer. Surgery. 134(6):946-54; discussion 954-5, 2003
                                                                                              21. Moley JF: Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(4):339-47, 2003
                                                                                              22. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003
                                                                                              23. Yen TW et al: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: results of a standardized surgical approach in a contemporary series of 80 consecutive patients. Surgery. 134(6):890-9; discussion 899-901, 2003
                                                                                              24. Szakall S Jr et al: 18F-FDG PET detection of lymph node metastases in medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Nucl Med. 43(1):66-71, 2002
                                                                                              25. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                                                                                              26. Hansford JR et al: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and RET: from neoplasia to neurogenesis. J Med Genet. 37(11):817-27, 2000
                                                                                              27. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                                                                              28. Dorr U et al: The contribution of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy to the diagnosis of recurrent medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Semin Oncol. 21(5 Suppl 13):42-5, 1994