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Medulloblastoma
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR; Majda M. Thurnher, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Medulloblastoma (MB)
              • Synonyms

                • PNET-MB
              • Definitions

                • Malignant, invasive, highly cellular embryonal tumor
                  • Not single-disease entity
                  • 4 distinct molecular subgroups
                    • Each has distinct cells of origin
                    • Each has distinct molecular and clinical features
                    • Each has different therapeutic approach
                    • Subgroup maintained in relapse/recurrence
                  • MB subgroups
                    • WNT (wingless)
                    • SHH (sonic hedgehog)
                    • Group 3
                    • Group 4

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Brandes AA et al: New perspectives in the treatment of adult medulloblastoma in the era of molecular oncology. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 94(3):348-359, 2015
                                                2. Wang X et al: Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments. Acta Neuropathol. 129(3):449-57, 2015
                                                3. Gerber NU et al: Recent developments and current concepts in medulloblastoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 40(3):356-65, 2014
                                                4. Hooper CM et al: Gene expression analyses of the spatio-temporal relationships of human medulloblastoma subgroups during early human neurogenesis. PLoS One. 9(11):e112909, 2014
                                                5. Perreault S et al: MRI surrogates for molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1263-9, 2014
                                                6. Shih DJ et al: Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups. J Clin Oncol. 32(9):886-96, 2014
                                                7. Rodriguez Gutierrez D et al: Metrics and textural features of MRI diffusion to improve classification of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):1009-15, 2014
                                                8. Pitsika M et al: Cerebellar mutism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(6):604-14, 2013
                                                9. Spina A et al: Review of cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma. Br J Neurosurg. 27(3):316-20, 2013
                                                10. Yeom KW et al: Distinctive MRI features of pediatric medulloblastoma subtypes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(4):895-903, 2013
                                                11. Papaioannou G et al: Imaging of the unusual pediatric 'blastomas'. Cancer Imaging. 9:1-11, 2009
                                                12. Riffaud L et al: Survival and prognostic factors in a series of adults with medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg. 111(3):478-87, 2009
                                                13. Yamashita Y et al: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res. 31(9):940-6, 2009
                                                14. Davies NP et al: Identification and characterisation of childhood cerebellar tumours by in vivo proton MRS. NMR Biomed. 21(8):908-18, 2008
                                                15. Koral K et al: Imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor in children compared with medulloblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(3):809-14, 2008
                                                16. Suresh TN et al: Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity: a variant occurring in the very young-clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of four cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 20(1):55-60, 2004
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Medulloblastoma (MB)
                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • PNET-MB
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Malignant, invasive, highly cellular embryonal tumor
                                                                • Not single-disease entity
                                                                • 4 distinct molecular subgroups
                                                                  • Each has distinct cells of origin
                                                                  • Each has distinct molecular and clinical features
                                                                  • Each has different therapeutic approach
                                                                  • Subgroup maintained in relapse/recurrence
                                                                • MB subgroups
                                                                  • WNT (wingless)
                                                                  • SHH (sonic hedgehog)
                                                                  • Group 3
                                                                  • Group 4

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Brandes AA et al: New perspectives in the treatment of adult medulloblastoma in the era of molecular oncology. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 94(3):348-359, 2015
                                                                                              2. Wang X et al: Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments. Acta Neuropathol. 129(3):449-57, 2015
                                                                                              3. Gerber NU et al: Recent developments and current concepts in medulloblastoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 40(3):356-65, 2014
                                                                                              4. Hooper CM et al: Gene expression analyses of the spatio-temporal relationships of human medulloblastoma subgroups during early human neurogenesis. PLoS One. 9(11):e112909, 2014
                                                                                              5. Perreault S et al: MRI surrogates for molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1263-9, 2014
                                                                                              6. Shih DJ et al: Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups. J Clin Oncol. 32(9):886-96, 2014
                                                                                              7. Rodriguez Gutierrez D et al: Metrics and textural features of MRI diffusion to improve classification of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):1009-15, 2014
                                                                                              8. Pitsika M et al: Cerebellar mutism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(6):604-14, 2013
                                                                                              9. Spina A et al: Review of cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma. Br J Neurosurg. 27(3):316-20, 2013
                                                                                              10. Yeom KW et al: Distinctive MRI features of pediatric medulloblastoma subtypes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(4):895-903, 2013
                                                                                              11. Papaioannou G et al: Imaging of the unusual pediatric 'blastomas'. Cancer Imaging. 9:1-11, 2009
                                                                                              12. Riffaud L et al: Survival and prognostic factors in a series of adults with medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg. 111(3):478-87, 2009
                                                                                              13. Yamashita Y et al: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res. 31(9):940-6, 2009
                                                                                              14. Davies NP et al: Identification and characterisation of childhood cerebellar tumours by in vivo proton MRS. NMR Biomed. 21(8):908-18, 2008
                                                                                              15. Koral K et al: Imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor in children compared with medulloblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(3):809-14, 2008
                                                                                              16. Suresh TN et al: Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity: a variant occurring in the very young-clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of four cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 20(1):55-60, 2004