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Medulloblastoma
Luke L. Linscott, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Medulloblastoma (MB)
              • Synonyms

                • Previously referred to as: Posterior fossa PNET, PNET-MB
                  • MB histologically similar to PNET but biologically distinct
                  • MB distinguished from PNET by i17q, loss of 17p, alterations of SHH and Wnt pathways, pattern of DNA methylation
              • Definitions

                • Malignant (WHO grade IV), invasive, highly cellular embryonal tumor

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Raybaud C et al: Posterior fossa tumors in children: developmental anatomy and diagnostic imaging. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(10):1661-76, 2015
                                          2. Wong TT et al: Factors affecting survival of medulloblastoma in children: the changing concept of management. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(10):1687-98, 2015
                                          3. Ostrom QT et al: CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2007-2011. Neuro Oncol. 16 Suppl 4:iv1-63, 2014
                                          4. Perreault S et al: MRI surrogates for molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1263-9, 2014
                                          5. Pierce TT et al: Evaluation of apparent diffusion coefficient thresholds for diagnosis of medulloblastoma using diffusion-weighted imaging. Neuroradiol J. 27(1):63-74, 2014
                                          6. Pierce T et al: Use of apparent diffusion coefficient values for diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Neuroradiol J. 27(2):233-44, 2014
                                          7. Plaza MJ et al: Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: posterior fossa and suprasellar tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(5):1115-24, 2013
                                          8. Yeom KW et al: Distinctive MRI features of pediatric medulloblastoma subtypes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(4):895-903, 2013
                                          9. Poretti A et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric posterior fossa tumors including review of the literature. J Magn Reson Imaging. 35(1):32-47, 2012
                                          10. Craver R et al: Medulloblastoma variants and survival at a children's hospital. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 30(1):53-9, 2011
                                          11. Eran A et al: Medulloblastoma: atypical CT and MRI findings in children. Pediatr Radiol. 40(7):1254-62, 2010
                                          12. Jaremko JL et al: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6. Epub 2010 Jun 10. Erratum in: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(10):E90, 2010
                                          13. Louis DN et al: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol. 114(2):97-109, 2007
                                          14. Gururangan S et al: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Patients with Medulloblastoma. Neurosurgery. 55(6):1280-9, 2004
                                          15. Koeller KK et al: From the archives of the AFIP: medulloblastoma: a comprehensive review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23(6):1613-37, 2003
                                          16. Huber H et al: Angiogenic profile of childhood primitive neuroectodermal brain tumours/medulloblastomas. Eur J Cancer. 37(16):2064-72, 2001
                                          17. Meyers SP et al: Postoperative evaluation for disseminated medulloblastoma involving the spine: contrast-enhanced MR findings, CSF cytologic analysis, timing of disease occurrence, and patient outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(9):1757-65, 2000
                                          18. Tortori-Donati P et al: Medulloblastoma in children: CT and MRI findings. Neuroradiology. 38(4):352-9, 1996
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Medulloblastoma (MB)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Previously referred to as: Posterior fossa PNET, PNET-MB
                                                          • MB histologically similar to PNET but biologically distinct
                                                          • MB distinguished from PNET by i17q, loss of 17p, alterations of SHH and Wnt pathways, pattern of DNA methylation
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Malignant (WHO grade IV), invasive, highly cellular embryonal tumor

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Raybaud C et al: Posterior fossa tumors in children: developmental anatomy and diagnostic imaging. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(10):1661-76, 2015
                                                                                  2. Wong TT et al: Factors affecting survival of medulloblastoma in children: the changing concept of management. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(10):1687-98, 2015
                                                                                  3. Ostrom QT et al: CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2007-2011. Neuro Oncol. 16 Suppl 4:iv1-63, 2014
                                                                                  4. Perreault S et al: MRI surrogates for molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1263-9, 2014
                                                                                  5. Pierce TT et al: Evaluation of apparent diffusion coefficient thresholds for diagnosis of medulloblastoma using diffusion-weighted imaging. Neuroradiol J. 27(1):63-74, 2014
                                                                                  6. Pierce T et al: Use of apparent diffusion coefficient values for diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Neuroradiol J. 27(2):233-44, 2014
                                                                                  7. Plaza MJ et al: Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: posterior fossa and suprasellar tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(5):1115-24, 2013
                                                                                  8. Yeom KW et al: Distinctive MRI features of pediatric medulloblastoma subtypes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(4):895-903, 2013
                                                                                  9. Poretti A et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric posterior fossa tumors including review of the literature. J Magn Reson Imaging. 35(1):32-47, 2012
                                                                                  10. Craver R et al: Medulloblastoma variants and survival at a children's hospital. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 30(1):53-9, 2011
                                                                                  11. Eran A et al: Medulloblastoma: atypical CT and MRI findings in children. Pediatr Radiol. 40(7):1254-62, 2010
                                                                                  12. Jaremko JL et al: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6. Epub 2010 Jun 10. Erratum in: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(10):E90, 2010
                                                                                  13. Louis DN et al: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol. 114(2):97-109, 2007
                                                                                  14. Gururangan S et al: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Patients with Medulloblastoma. Neurosurgery. 55(6):1280-9, 2004
                                                                                  15. Koeller KK et al: From the archives of the AFIP: medulloblastoma: a comprehensive review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23(6):1613-37, 2003
                                                                                  16. Huber H et al: Angiogenic profile of childhood primitive neuroectodermal brain tumours/medulloblastomas. Eur J Cancer. 37(16):2064-72, 2001
                                                                                  17. Meyers SP et al: Postoperative evaluation for disseminated medulloblastoma involving the spine: contrast-enhanced MR findings, CSF cytologic analysis, timing of disease occurrence, and patient outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(9):1757-65, 2000
                                                                                  18. Tortori-Donati P et al: Medulloblastoma in children: CT and MRI findings. Neuroradiology. 38(4):352-9, 1996