link
Bookmarks
Memory Overview
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe

Terminology

  • Definitions

    • Procedural memory: Long-term memory that does not require conscious recollection such as motor skills, also called implicit memory
    • Declarative memory: Long-term memory that requires conscious recollection, can be episodic or semantic, also called explicit memory
    • Episodic memory: Recollection of events or objects related to a specific context, place, or time, includes autobiographical memory
    • Semantic memory: Recollection of facts, ideas, and knowledge independent of context
    • Short-term (working) memory: Form of attention mediated by distinct neural substrates from those used in long-term memory; allows rehearsal, recall, and conscious perception of representations over minutes to hours
    • Consolidation: Transfer of sensory or semantic representations to long-term memory (encoding)
    • Pattern separation: Ability to discriminate among representations of similar experiences or objects
    • Pattern completion: Ability to associate representations of similar experiences or objects

Imaging Anatomy

  • Overview

    • Hippocampus

      • Parahippocampal Cortex

        • Entorhinal Cortex

          • Perirhinal Cortex

            • Amygdala

              • Fornix

                • Default Mode Network

                  • Cerebellum

                    • Basal Ganglia

                      Clinical Implications

                      • Clinical Importance

                        • Functional Imaging Tasks

                          Selected References

                          1. McCormick C et al: Default mode network connectivity indicates episodic memory capacity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 54(5):809-18, 2013
                          2. Rugg MD et al: Brain networks underlying episodic memory retrieval. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 23(2):255-60, 2013
                          3. Shapira-Lichter I et al: Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(13):4950-5, 2013
                          4. Bonelli SB et al: Imaging language networks before and after anterior temporal lobe resection: results of a longitudinal fMRI study. Epilepsia. 53(4):639-50, 2012
                          5. Centeno M et al: Memory in frontal lobe epilepsy: an fMRI study. Epilepsia. 53(10):1756-64, 2012
                          6. Sestieri C et al: Episodic memory retrieval, parietal cortex, and the default mode network: functional and topographic analyses. J Neurosci. 31(12):4407-20, 2011
                          7. St Jacques PL et al: Dynamic neural networks supporting memory retrieval. Neuroimage. 57(2):608-16, 2011
                          8. Thomas AG et al: The fornix in health and disease: an imaging review. Radiographics. 31(4):1107-21, 2011
                          9. Yassa MA et al: Pattern separation in the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci. 34(10):515-25, 2011
                          10. Bonelli SB et al: Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection. Brain. 133(Pt 4):1186-99, 2010
                          11. Burianova H et al: A common functional brain network for autobiographical, episodic, and semantic memory retrieval. Neuroimage. 49(1):865-74, 2010
                          12. Carr VA et al: Imaging the human medial temporal lobe with high-resolution fMRI. Neuron. 65(3):298-308, 2010
                          13. Duncan JS: Imaging in the surgical treatment of epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(10):537-50, 2010
                          14. Labudda K et al: Presurgical language fMRI activation correlates with postsurgical verbal memory decline in left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 92(2-3):258-61, 2010
                          15. Seeley WW et al: Neurodegenerative diseases target large-scale human brain networks. Neuron. 62(1):42-52, 2009
                          16. Kahn I et al: Distinct cortical anatomy linked to subregions of the medial temporal lobe revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 100(1):129-39, 2008
                          17. Addis DR et al: Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 130(Pt 9):2327-42, 2007
                          18. Greicius MD et al: Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101(13):4637-42, 2004
                          19. Squire LR et al: The medial temporal lobe. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:279-306, 2004
                          Related Anatomy
                          Loading...
                          Related Differential Diagnoses
                          Loading...
                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          Terminology

                          • Definitions

                            • Procedural memory: Long-term memory that does not require conscious recollection such as motor skills, also called implicit memory
                            • Declarative memory: Long-term memory that requires conscious recollection, can be episodic or semantic, also called explicit memory
                            • Episodic memory: Recollection of events or objects related to a specific context, place, or time, includes autobiographical memory
                            • Semantic memory: Recollection of facts, ideas, and knowledge independent of context
                            • Short-term (working) memory: Form of attention mediated by distinct neural substrates from those used in long-term memory; allows rehearsal, recall, and conscious perception of representations over minutes to hours
                            • Consolidation: Transfer of sensory or semantic representations to long-term memory (encoding)
                            • Pattern separation: Ability to discriminate among representations of similar experiences or objects
                            • Pattern completion: Ability to associate representations of similar experiences or objects

                          Imaging Anatomy

                          • Overview

                            • Hippocampus

                              • Parahippocampal Cortex

                                • Entorhinal Cortex

                                  • Perirhinal Cortex

                                    • Amygdala

                                      • Fornix

                                        • Default Mode Network

                                          • Cerebellum

                                            • Basal Ganglia

                                              Clinical Implications

                                              • Clinical Importance

                                                • Functional Imaging Tasks

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. McCormick C et al: Default mode network connectivity indicates episodic memory capacity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 54(5):809-18, 2013
                                                  2. Rugg MD et al: Brain networks underlying episodic memory retrieval. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 23(2):255-60, 2013
                                                  3. Shapira-Lichter I et al: Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(13):4950-5, 2013
                                                  4. Bonelli SB et al: Imaging language networks before and after anterior temporal lobe resection: results of a longitudinal fMRI study. Epilepsia. 53(4):639-50, 2012
                                                  5. Centeno M et al: Memory in frontal lobe epilepsy: an fMRI study. Epilepsia. 53(10):1756-64, 2012
                                                  6. Sestieri C et al: Episodic memory retrieval, parietal cortex, and the default mode network: functional and topographic analyses. J Neurosci. 31(12):4407-20, 2011
                                                  7. St Jacques PL et al: Dynamic neural networks supporting memory retrieval. Neuroimage. 57(2):608-16, 2011
                                                  8. Thomas AG et al: The fornix in health and disease: an imaging review. Radiographics. 31(4):1107-21, 2011
                                                  9. Yassa MA et al: Pattern separation in the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci. 34(10):515-25, 2011
                                                  10. Bonelli SB et al: Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection. Brain. 133(Pt 4):1186-99, 2010
                                                  11. Burianova H et al: A common functional brain network for autobiographical, episodic, and semantic memory retrieval. Neuroimage. 49(1):865-74, 2010
                                                  12. Carr VA et al: Imaging the human medial temporal lobe with high-resolution fMRI. Neuron. 65(3):298-308, 2010
                                                  13. Duncan JS: Imaging in the surgical treatment of epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(10):537-50, 2010
                                                  14. Labudda K et al: Presurgical language fMRI activation correlates with postsurgical verbal memory decline in left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 92(2-3):258-61, 2010
                                                  15. Seeley WW et al: Neurodegenerative diseases target large-scale human brain networks. Neuron. 62(1):42-52, 2009
                                                  16. Kahn I et al: Distinct cortical anatomy linked to subregions of the medial temporal lobe revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 100(1):129-39, 2008
                                                  17. Addis DR et al: Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 130(Pt 9):2327-42, 2007
                                                  18. Greicius MD et al: Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101(13):4637-42, 2004
                                                  19. Squire LR et al: The medial temporal lobe. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:279-306, 2004