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Meningitis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Karen L. Salzman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Leptomeningitis; infectious meningitis
            • Definitions

              • Acute or chronic inflammatory infiltration of pia, arachnoid, and CSF
              • Classified as acute pyogenic (bacterial), lymphocytic (viral), chronic (tubercular or granulomatous)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Oliveira CR et al: Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants with bacterial meningitis. J Pediatr. 165(1):134-9, 2014
                                          2. Schoeman JF et al: Tuberculous meningitis. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1135-8, 2013
                                          3. Bartt R: Acute bacterial and viral meningitis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 18(6 Infectious Disease):1255-70, 2012
                                          4. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                          5. Handique SK: Viral infections of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(4):777-94, vii, 2011
                                          6. Tebruegge M et al: Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 21(3):519-37, 2008
                                          7. Johnson AW et al: Childhood pyogenic meningitis: clinical and investigative indicators of etiology and outcome. J Natl Med Assoc. 99(8):937-47, 2007
                                          8. Lee BE et al: Aseptic meningitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 20(3):272-7, 2007
                                          9. Lepur D et al: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: antibiotic timing in disease course and outcome. Infection. 35(4):225-31, 2007
                                          10. Santos LC et al: Bacterial meningitis in an urban area: etiologic study and prognostic factors. Infection. 35(6):406-13, 2007
                                          11. Smirniotopoulos JG et al: Patterns of contrast enhancement in the brain and meninges. Radiographics. 27(2):525-51, 2007
                                          12. Gleissner B et al: Neoplastic meningitis. Lancet Neurol. 5(5):443-52, 2006
                                          13. Kremer S et al: Accuracy of delayed post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal infectious or tumoral diseases. J Neuroradiol. 33(5):285-91, 2006
                                          14. Meyer S et al: Tuberculous meningitis. Lancet. 367(9523):1682, 2006
                                          15. Migirov L et al: Otogenic intracranial complications: a review of 28 cases. Acta Otolaryngol. 125(8):819-22, 2005
                                          16. Overturf GD: Defining bacterial meningitis and other infections of the central nervous system. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 6(3 Suppl):S14-8, 2005
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Leptomeningitis; infectious meningitis
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Acute or chronic inflammatory infiltration of pia, arachnoid, and CSF
                                                      • Classified as acute pyogenic (bacterial), lymphocytic (viral), chronic (tubercular or granulomatous)

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Oliveira CR et al: Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants with bacterial meningitis. J Pediatr. 165(1):134-9, 2014
                                                                                  2. Schoeman JF et al: Tuberculous meningitis. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1135-8, 2013
                                                                                  3. Bartt R: Acute bacterial and viral meningitis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 18(6 Infectious Disease):1255-70, 2012
                                                                                  4. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                                                                  5. Handique SK: Viral infections of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(4):777-94, vii, 2011
                                                                                  6. Tebruegge M et al: Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 21(3):519-37, 2008
                                                                                  7. Johnson AW et al: Childhood pyogenic meningitis: clinical and investigative indicators of etiology and outcome. J Natl Med Assoc. 99(8):937-47, 2007
                                                                                  8. Lee BE et al: Aseptic meningitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 20(3):272-7, 2007
                                                                                  9. Lepur D et al: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: antibiotic timing in disease course and outcome. Infection. 35(4):225-31, 2007
                                                                                  10. Santos LC et al: Bacterial meningitis in an urban area: etiologic study and prognostic factors. Infection. 35(6):406-13, 2007
                                                                                  11. Smirniotopoulos JG et al: Patterns of contrast enhancement in the brain and meninges. Radiographics. 27(2):525-51, 2007
                                                                                  12. Gleissner B et al: Neoplastic meningitis. Lancet Neurol. 5(5):443-52, 2006
                                                                                  13. Kremer S et al: Accuracy of delayed post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal infectious or tumoral diseases. J Neuroradiol. 33(5):285-91, 2006
                                                                                  14. Meyer S et al: Tuberculous meningitis. Lancet. 367(9523):1682, 2006
                                                                                  15. Migirov L et al: Otogenic intracranial complications: a review of 28 cases. Acta Otolaryngol. 125(8):819-22, 2005
                                                                                  16. Overturf GD: Defining bacterial meningitis and other infections of the central nervous system. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 6(3 Suppl):S14-8, 2005