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Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Robert M Morgan, Jr., MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC): Rare, aggressive, cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor
            • Primary tumor sites: Head and neck (47%), upper extremities (25%), lower extremities (19%), trunk/buttocks (~ 5%)
            • Typically < 1 cm to > 2 cm

        IMAGING

        • F-18 FDG PET/CT

          • Lymphoscintigraphy

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Somatostatin Receptor Imaging

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Swanson MS et al: Diagnosis and management of merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: current trends and controversies. Cancers (Basel). 6(3):1256-66, 2014
                                    2. Treglia G et al: Diagnostic performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Dermatol. 14(6):437-47, 2013
                                    3. Ramahi E et al: Merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 36(3):299-309, 2013
                                    4. Zager JS et al: Imaging of Merkel cell carcinoma. Curr Probl Cancer. 34(1):65-76, 2010
                                    5. Merkel cell carcinoma. In: American Join Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 318-9, 2010
                                    6. Güler-Nizam E et al: Clinical course and prognostic factors of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. Br J Dermatol. 161(1):90-4, 2009
                                    7. Heath M et al: Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 58(3):375-81, 2008
                                    8. Bobos M et al: Immunohistochemical distinction between merkel cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Am J Dermatopathol. 28(2):99-104, 2006
                                    9. Lewis KG et al: Adjuvant local irradiation for Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 142(6):693-700, 2006
                                    10. Anderson SE et al: MRI of merkel cell carcinoma: histologic correlation and review of the literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(6):1441-8, 2005
                                    11. Hodgson NC: Merkel cell carcinoma: changing incidence trends. J Surg Oncol. 89(1):1-4, 2005
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC): Rare, aggressive, cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor
                                              • Primary tumor sites: Head and neck (47%), upper extremities (25%), lower extremities (19%), trunk/buttocks (~ 5%)
                                              • Typically < 1 cm to > 2 cm

                                          IMAGING

                                          • F-18 FDG PET/CT

                                            • Lymphoscintigraphy

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Somatostatin Receptor Imaging

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Swanson MS et al: Diagnosis and management of merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: current trends and controversies. Cancers (Basel). 6(3):1256-66, 2014
                                                                      2. Treglia G et al: Diagnostic performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Dermatol. 14(6):437-47, 2013
                                                                      3. Ramahi E et al: Merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 36(3):299-309, 2013
                                                                      4. Zager JS et al: Imaging of Merkel cell carcinoma. Curr Probl Cancer. 34(1):65-76, 2010
                                                                      5. Merkel cell carcinoma. In: American Join Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 318-9, 2010
                                                                      6. Güler-Nizam E et al: Clinical course and prognostic factors of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. Br J Dermatol. 161(1):90-4, 2009
                                                                      7. Heath M et al: Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 58(3):375-81, 2008
                                                                      8. Bobos M et al: Immunohistochemical distinction between merkel cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Am J Dermatopathol. 28(2):99-104, 2006
                                                                      9. Lewis KG et al: Adjuvant local irradiation for Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 142(6):693-700, 2006
                                                                      10. Anderson SE et al: MRI of merkel cell carcinoma: histologic correlation and review of the literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(6):1441-8, 2005
                                                                      11. Hodgson NC: Merkel cell carcinoma: changing incidence trends. J Surg Oncol. 89(1):1-4, 2005