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Mesial Temporal Sclerosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS)
              • Synonyms

                • Ammons horn sclerosis, hippocampal sclerosis (HS)
              • Definitions

                • Seizure-associated neuronal loss and gliosis in hippocampus and adjacent structures

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. French JA et al: Can febrile status cause hippocampal sclerosis? Ann Neurol. 75(2):173-4, 2014
                                              2. Roessler K et al: Improved resection in lesional temporal lobe epilepsy surgery using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging: favourable long term surgical and seizure outcome in 88 consecutive cases. Seizure. 23(3):201-7, 2014
                                              3. Kapina V et al: Hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Epileptic Disord. 15(4):451-4, 2013
                                              4. Blümcke I et al: Defining clinico-neuropathological subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 22(3):402-11, 2012
                                              5. Bonilha L et al: Subtypes of medial temporal lobe epilepsy: influence on temporal lobectomy outcomes? Epilepsia. 53(1):1-6, 2012
                                              6. Malmgren K et al: Hippocampal sclerosis--origins and imaging. Epilepsia. 53 Suppl 4:19-33, 2012
                                              7. Kröll-Seger J et al: Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to potassium channels leading to bilateral hippocampal sclerosis in a pre-pubertal girl. Epileptic Disord. 11(1):54-9, 2009
                                              8. Bote RP et al: Hippocampal sclerosis: histopathology substrate and magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 29(1):2-14, 2008
                                              9. Chang YC et al: Long-term neuroplasticity effects of febrile seizures in the developing brain. Chang Gung Med J. 31(2):125-35, 2008
                                              10. Focke NK et al: Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Neuroimage. 40(2):728-37, 2008
                                              11. Carne RP et al: 'MRI-negative PET-positive' temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial TLE differ with quantitative MRI and PET: a case control study. BMC Neurol. 7:16, 2007
                                              12. Ray A et al: Temporal lobe epilepsy in children: overview of clinical semiology. Epileptic Disord. 7(4):299-307, 2005
                                              13. Ray A et al: Treatment options and paradigms in childhood temporal lobe epilepsy. Expert Rev Neurother. 5(6):785-801, 2005
                                              14. Sloviter RS: The neurobiology of temporal lobe epilepsy: too much information, not enough knowledge. C R Biol. 328(2):143-53, 2005
                                              15. Cendes F: Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 17(2):161-4, 2004
                                              16. Theodore WH: Recent advances and trends in epilepsy imaging: pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Rev Neurol Dis. 1(2):53-9, 2004
                                              17. Van Paesschen W: Qualitative and quantitative imaging of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 14(3):373-400, vii, 2004
                                              18. Volcy Gómez M: [Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: its physiopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis] Rev Neurol. 38(7):663-7, 2004
                                              19. Bocti C et al: The pathological basis of temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. Neurology. 60(2):191-5, 2003
                                              20. Sokol DK et al: From swelling to sclerosis: acute change in mesial hippocampus after prolonged febrile seizure. Seizure. 12(4):237-40, 2003
                                              21. Benbadis SR et al: MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis in subjects without seizures. Seizure. 11(5):340-3, 2002
                                              22. Capizzano AA et al: Multisection proton MR spectroscopy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(8):1359-68, 2002
                                              23. Kumlien E et al: Treatment outcome in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. Seizure. 11(7):413-7, 2002
                                              24. Kuzniecky RI et al: Neuroimaging of epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 22(3):279-88, 2002
                                              25. Lewis DV et al: Do prolonged febrile seizures produce medial temporal sclerosis? Hypotheses, MRI evidence and unanswered questions. Prog Brain Res. 135:263-78, 2002
                                              26. Scott RC et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings within 5 days of status epilepticus in childhood. Brain. 125(Pt 9):1951-9, 2002
                                              27. Spencer SS: When should temporal-lobe epilepsy be treated surgically? Lancet Neurol. 1(6):375-82, 2002
                                              28. Castillo M et al: Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with acute temporal lobe seizures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):152-7, 2001
                                              29. Moore KR et al: Incidental detection of hippocampal sclerosis on MR images: is it significant? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(9):1609-12, 1999
                                              30. Ho SS et al: Temporal lobe developmental malformations and epilepsy: dual pathology and bilateral hippocampal abnormalities. Neurology. 50(3):748-54, 1998
                                              31. Lee DH et al: MR in temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis with pathologic confirmation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(1):19-27, 1998
                                              32. Bronen RA et al: Regional distribution of MR findings in hippocampal sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(6):1193-200, 1995
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Ammons horn sclerosis, hippocampal sclerosis (HS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Seizure-associated neuronal loss and gliosis in hippocampus and adjacent structures

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. French JA et al: Can febrile status cause hippocampal sclerosis? Ann Neurol. 75(2):173-4, 2014
                                                                                          2. Roessler K et al: Improved resection in lesional temporal lobe epilepsy surgery using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging: favourable long term surgical and seizure outcome in 88 consecutive cases. Seizure. 23(3):201-7, 2014
                                                                                          3. Kapina V et al: Hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Epileptic Disord. 15(4):451-4, 2013
                                                                                          4. Blümcke I et al: Defining clinico-neuropathological subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 22(3):402-11, 2012
                                                                                          5. Bonilha L et al: Subtypes of medial temporal lobe epilepsy: influence on temporal lobectomy outcomes? Epilepsia. 53(1):1-6, 2012
                                                                                          6. Malmgren K et al: Hippocampal sclerosis--origins and imaging. Epilepsia. 53 Suppl 4:19-33, 2012
                                                                                          7. Kröll-Seger J et al: Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to potassium channels leading to bilateral hippocampal sclerosis in a pre-pubertal girl. Epileptic Disord. 11(1):54-9, 2009
                                                                                          8. Bote RP et al: Hippocampal sclerosis: histopathology substrate and magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 29(1):2-14, 2008
                                                                                          9. Chang YC et al: Long-term neuroplasticity effects of febrile seizures in the developing brain. Chang Gung Med J. 31(2):125-35, 2008
                                                                                          10. Focke NK et al: Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Neuroimage. 40(2):728-37, 2008
                                                                                          11. Carne RP et al: 'MRI-negative PET-positive' temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial TLE differ with quantitative MRI and PET: a case control study. BMC Neurol. 7:16, 2007
                                                                                          12. Ray A et al: Temporal lobe epilepsy in children: overview of clinical semiology. Epileptic Disord. 7(4):299-307, 2005
                                                                                          13. Ray A et al: Treatment options and paradigms in childhood temporal lobe epilepsy. Expert Rev Neurother. 5(6):785-801, 2005
                                                                                          14. Sloviter RS: The neurobiology of temporal lobe epilepsy: too much information, not enough knowledge. C R Biol. 328(2):143-53, 2005
                                                                                          15. Cendes F: Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 17(2):161-4, 2004
                                                                                          16. Theodore WH: Recent advances and trends in epilepsy imaging: pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Rev Neurol Dis. 1(2):53-9, 2004
                                                                                          17. Van Paesschen W: Qualitative and quantitative imaging of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 14(3):373-400, vii, 2004
                                                                                          18. Volcy Gómez M: [Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: its physiopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis] Rev Neurol. 38(7):663-7, 2004
                                                                                          19. Bocti C et al: The pathological basis of temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. Neurology. 60(2):191-5, 2003
                                                                                          20. Sokol DK et al: From swelling to sclerosis: acute change in mesial hippocampus after prolonged febrile seizure. Seizure. 12(4):237-40, 2003
                                                                                          21. Benbadis SR et al: MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis in subjects without seizures. Seizure. 11(5):340-3, 2002
                                                                                          22. Capizzano AA et al: Multisection proton MR spectroscopy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(8):1359-68, 2002
                                                                                          23. Kumlien E et al: Treatment outcome in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. Seizure. 11(7):413-7, 2002
                                                                                          24. Kuzniecky RI et al: Neuroimaging of epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 22(3):279-88, 2002
                                                                                          25. Lewis DV et al: Do prolonged febrile seizures produce medial temporal sclerosis? Hypotheses, MRI evidence and unanswered questions. Prog Brain Res. 135:263-78, 2002
                                                                                          26. Scott RC et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings within 5 days of status epilepticus in childhood. Brain. 125(Pt 9):1951-9, 2002
                                                                                          27. Spencer SS: When should temporal-lobe epilepsy be treated surgically? Lancet Neurol. 1(6):375-82, 2002
                                                                                          28. Castillo M et al: Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with acute temporal lobe seizures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):152-7, 2001
                                                                                          29. Moore KR et al: Incidental detection of hippocampal sclerosis on MR images: is it significant? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(9):1609-12, 1999
                                                                                          30. Ho SS et al: Temporal lobe developmental malformations and epilepsy: dual pathology and bilateral hippocampal abnormalities. Neurology. 50(3):748-54, 1998
                                                                                          31. Lee DH et al: MR in temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis with pathologic confirmation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(1):19-27, 1998
                                                                                          32. Bronen RA et al: Regional distribution of MR findings in hippocampal sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(6):1193-200, 1995