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Metastases, CSF Disseminated, Craniovertebral Junction
Lubdha M. Shah, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC)
              • Carcinomatous or neoplastic meningitis
              • Drop metastases
            • Definitions

              • Spread of malignant tumor through subarachnoid spaces of brain and spinal cord

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Wostrack M et al: Surgical treatment of spinal intradural carcinoma metastases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 154(2):349-57, 2012
                                          2. Mahendru G et al: Meninges in cancer imaging. Cancer Imaging. 9 Spec No A:S14-21, 2009
                                          3. Chamberlain MC: Neoplastic meningitis. Oncologist. 13(9):967-77, 2008
                                          4. Pang J et al: The value of tandem CSF/MRI evaluation for predicting disseminated disease in childhood central nervous system neoplasms. J Neurooncol. 87(1):97-102, 2008
                                          5. McPherson CM et al: Metastatic disease from spinal chordoma: a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 5(4):277-80, 2006
                                          6. Lindsay A et al: Spinal leptomeningeal metastases following glioblastoma multiforme treated with radiotherapy. J Clin Neurosci. 9(6): 725-8, 2002
                                          7. Singh SK et al: MR imaging of leptomeningeal metastases: comparison of three sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(5): 817-21, 2002
                                          8. Chamberlain MC et al: A comparison between ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid cytology in adult patients with leptomeningeal metastases. Neuro Oncol. 3(1):42-5, 2001
                                          9. Meyers SP et al: Postoperative evaluation for disseminated medulloblastoma involving the spine: contrast-enhanced MR findings, CSF cytologic analysis, timing of disease occurrence, and patient outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(9):1757-65, 2000
                                          10. Collie DA et al: Imaging features of leptomeningeal metastases. Clin Radiol. 54(11): 765-71, 1999
                                          11. Straathof CS et al: The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in leptomeningeal metastasis. J Neurol. 246(9): 810-4, 1999
                                          12. van der Ree TC et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis after surgical resection of brain metastases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 66(2): 225-7, 1999
                                          13. Chamberlain MC: Radioisotope CSF flow studies in leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 38(2-3):135-40, 1998
                                          14. Formaglio F et al: Meningeal metastases: clinical aspects and diagnosis. Ital J Neurol Sci. 19(3): 133-49, 1998
                                          15. Gomori JM et al: Leptomeningeal metastases: evaluation by gadolinium enhanced spinal magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurooncol. 36(1): 55-60, 1998
                                          16. Kallmes DF et al: High-dose gadolinium-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of meningeal metastases. Neuroradiology. 40(1): 23-6, 1998
                                          17. Chamberlain MC et al: Carcinomatous meningitis secondary to breast cancer: predictors of response to combined modality therapy. J Neurooncol. 35(1): 55-64, 1997
                                          18. Chamberlain MC: Comparative spine imaging in leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 23(3):233-8, 1995
                                          19. Freilich RJ et al: Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Ann Neurol. 38(1): 51-7, 1995
                                          20. Glantz MJ et al: Diagnosis, management, and survival of patients with leptomeningeal cancer based on cerebrospinal fluid-flow status. Cancer. 75(12):2919-31, 1995
                                          21. Heinz R et al: Detection of cerebrospinal fluid metastasis: CT myelography or MR? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(5):1147-51, 1995
                                          22. Chua SL et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of leptomeningeal metastases to the spine. Singapore Med J. 34(3): 253-6, 1993
                                          23. Watanabe M et al: Correlation of MRI and clinical features in meningeal carcinomatosis. Neuroradiology. 35(7):512-5, 1993
                                          24. Lossos A et al: Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 12(2): 167-71, 1992
                                          25. Schuknecht B et al: Spinal leptomeningeal neoplastic disease. Evaluation by MR, myelography and CT myelography. Eur Neurol. 32(1):11-6, 1992
                                          26. Yousem DM et al: Leptomeningeal metastases: MR evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 14(2): 255-61, 1990
                                          27. Davis PC et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis: MR imaging. Radiology. 163(2): 449-54, 1987
                                          28. Freeman CR et al: Primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system. Cancer. 58(5): 1106-11, 1986
                                          29. Weissman DE et al: Simultaneous leptomeningeal and intramedullary spinal metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. Med Pediatr Oncol. 14(1):54-6, 1986
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC)
                                                      • Carcinomatous or neoplastic meningitis
                                                      • Drop metastases
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Spread of malignant tumor through subarachnoid spaces of brain and spinal cord

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Wostrack M et al: Surgical treatment of spinal intradural carcinoma metastases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 154(2):349-57, 2012
                                                                                  2. Mahendru G et al: Meninges in cancer imaging. Cancer Imaging. 9 Spec No A:S14-21, 2009
                                                                                  3. Chamberlain MC: Neoplastic meningitis. Oncologist. 13(9):967-77, 2008
                                                                                  4. Pang J et al: The value of tandem CSF/MRI evaluation for predicting disseminated disease in childhood central nervous system neoplasms. J Neurooncol. 87(1):97-102, 2008
                                                                                  5. McPherson CM et al: Metastatic disease from spinal chordoma: a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 5(4):277-80, 2006
                                                                                  6. Lindsay A et al: Spinal leptomeningeal metastases following glioblastoma multiforme treated with radiotherapy. J Clin Neurosci. 9(6): 725-8, 2002
                                                                                  7. Singh SK et al: MR imaging of leptomeningeal metastases: comparison of three sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(5): 817-21, 2002
                                                                                  8. Chamberlain MC et al: A comparison between ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid cytology in adult patients with leptomeningeal metastases. Neuro Oncol. 3(1):42-5, 2001
                                                                                  9. Meyers SP et al: Postoperative evaluation for disseminated medulloblastoma involving the spine: contrast-enhanced MR findings, CSF cytologic analysis, timing of disease occurrence, and patient outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(9):1757-65, 2000
                                                                                  10. Collie DA et al: Imaging features of leptomeningeal metastases. Clin Radiol. 54(11): 765-71, 1999
                                                                                  11. Straathof CS et al: The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in leptomeningeal metastasis. J Neurol. 246(9): 810-4, 1999
                                                                                  12. van der Ree TC et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis after surgical resection of brain metastases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 66(2): 225-7, 1999
                                                                                  13. Chamberlain MC: Radioisotope CSF flow studies in leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 38(2-3):135-40, 1998
                                                                                  14. Formaglio F et al: Meningeal metastases: clinical aspects and diagnosis. Ital J Neurol Sci. 19(3): 133-49, 1998
                                                                                  15. Gomori JM et al: Leptomeningeal metastases: evaluation by gadolinium enhanced spinal magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurooncol. 36(1): 55-60, 1998
                                                                                  16. Kallmes DF et al: High-dose gadolinium-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of meningeal metastases. Neuroradiology. 40(1): 23-6, 1998
                                                                                  17. Chamberlain MC et al: Carcinomatous meningitis secondary to breast cancer: predictors of response to combined modality therapy. J Neurooncol. 35(1): 55-64, 1997
                                                                                  18. Chamberlain MC: Comparative spine imaging in leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 23(3):233-8, 1995
                                                                                  19. Freilich RJ et al: Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Ann Neurol. 38(1): 51-7, 1995
                                                                                  20. Glantz MJ et al: Diagnosis, management, and survival of patients with leptomeningeal cancer based on cerebrospinal fluid-flow status. Cancer. 75(12):2919-31, 1995
                                                                                  21. Heinz R et al: Detection of cerebrospinal fluid metastasis: CT myelography or MR? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(5):1147-51, 1995
                                                                                  22. Chua SL et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of leptomeningeal metastases to the spine. Singapore Med J. 34(3): 253-6, 1993
                                                                                  23. Watanabe M et al: Correlation of MRI and clinical features in meningeal carcinomatosis. Neuroradiology. 35(7):512-5, 1993
                                                                                  24. Lossos A et al: Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 12(2): 167-71, 1992
                                                                                  25. Schuknecht B et al: Spinal leptomeningeal neoplastic disease. Evaluation by MR, myelography and CT myelography. Eur Neurol. 32(1):11-6, 1992
                                                                                  26. Yousem DM et al: Leptomeningeal metastases: MR evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 14(2): 255-61, 1990
                                                                                  27. Davis PC et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis: MR imaging. Radiology. 163(2): 449-54, 1987
                                                                                  28. Freeman CR et al: Primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system. Cancer. 58(5): 1106-11, 1986
                                                                                  29. Weissman DE et al: Simultaneous leptomeningeal and intramedullary spinal metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. Med Pediatr Oncol. 14(1):54-6, 1986